Defining Health

The World Health Organization defines health as the state of complete mental, physical, and social wellbeing and not the absence of infirmity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention endorse the definition by showing that the complete wellbeing of a person defines their health (Brook, 2017). Past definitions would indicate that health is a state of being free from disease and illness. The improved definition is critical since it examines the wellbeing of a person in three dimensions including physical, mental, and social wellbeing. Healthcare workers have a responsibility to examine the health of an individual in different dimensions (Brook, 2017). A comprehensive patient examination is vital in assessing the healthcare factors that could contribute to poor health. Due to the improved definition of health, practitioners have to utilize different interventions apart from medication to promote health.
The resources necessary to provide quality healthcare in a population involve all the materials needed to provide healthcare services. The resources include all the materials, funds, and personnel that are vital in the provision of healthcare services. The materials include the medication and the tools necessary for the provision of care (Healthy People, 2021). Healthcare facilities should be equipped with the materials for diagnostic testing and provision of care. It is important to diagnose patients accurately using the appropriate tools. Another set of resources is the personnel (Healthy People, 2021). The personnel includes the nurses, managers, physicians, psychiatrists, and midwives. The different categories of nurses are important for bedside care, follow-up clinic, and prescription of medication. Lack of sufficient distribution of personnel across the healthcare network undermines the health of patients (Lacasa et al., 2020). For instance, the healthcare sector has been facing a shortage of personnel leading to long shifts for the available practitioners.
Funds are important resources in the provision of care across the world. The allocation of funds for research purposes enhances the ability to discover new medications or practices (Lacasa et al., 2020). Healthcare workers need to utilize evidence-based practices to ensure the accuracy of treatment and diagnosis. Hospitals use funds to allocate appropriate salaries for the healthcare workers and other support staff. It is important to motivate the healthcare workers by compensating them appropriately (Cancio et al., 2019). Governments utilize policies to allocate practitioners and provide medication to healthcare facilities.
The resources available in my community are healthcare workers. Community healthcare workers are present in the surrounding healthcare facilities. Some of their major roles in diagnosis and treatment (Cancio et al., 2019). During the pandemic, the healthcare workers have been vital in addressing the issues surrounding the treatment and diagnosis. Another important role in educating the patients on the need to change lifestyles to ensure quality healthcare outcomes. The practitioners are equipped with the tools for diagnosing different diseases and providing appropriate interventions (Lacasa et al., 2020). The nurses and physicians utilize evidence-based practice interventions to ensure they provide quality care to the patients.
Past definitions would indicate that health is a state of being free from disease and illness. The improved definition is critical since it examines the wellbeing of a person in three dimensions including physical, mental, and social wellbeing. The resources include all the materials, funds, and personnel that are vital in the provision of healthcare services. Healthcare facilities have a responsibility to utilize the resources to promote quality healthcare outcomes. It is important to ensure equitable distribution of the resources in the healthcare sector to eliminate the risk of inequalities that lead to negative outcomes.
Brook, R. H. (2017). Should the Definition of Health Include a Measure of Tolerance?. Jama, 317(6), 585-586.
Cancio, J. M., Vela, E., Santaeugènia, S., Clèries, M., Inzitari, M., & Ruiz, D. (2019). Long-term impact of hip fracture on the use of healthcare resources: a population-based study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 20(4), 456-461.
Healthy People (2021). Healthy People 2020. ODPHP. Retrieved from
Lacasa, L., Challen, R., Brooks-Pollock, E., & Danon, L. (2020). A flexible method for optimising sharing of healthcare resources and demand in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Plos One, 15(10), e0241027.

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More about:

Trimester 1, 2021
TIME ALLOWED: 4.5 hours
All answers must be submitted within this time frame. Late submissions are not accepted.
Assessment Weight: 50 total marks
• All questions must be answered by using the answer boxes provided in this paper.
• Completed answers must be submitted to Blackboard by the published due date and time.
Submission instructions are at the end of this paper.
This assessment consists of six (6) questions and is designed to assess your level of knowledge of the key topics covered in this unit

Note. References are not mandatory for this assessment. However, please follow the Adaptive Harvard Referencing guidelines at the end of this paper if you use any reference(s) to explain any concept or theory.
Question 1 (11 marks)
You have been hired to develop a marketing plan for a small solicitor (lawyer) in your local town. Discuss the 4 segmentation bases that may be used, and then recommend a target market for your solicitor. Students should combine their discussion with theories provided in lectures (300 words)
ANSWER: ** Answer box will enlarge as you type
Question 2 (11 marks)
Consider the attributes of price, quality, availability, and promotion. Provide your justification for the best combination of these four attributes in brand positioning. (300 words)
Question 3 (7 marks)
A US health food store, Best Healthy Foods, has stores in over 100 countries, selling health food in a supermarket format. Their management are considering Australia as a potential market for their health food stores. As the marketing manager for Best Healthy Foods, you have begun your research into the Australian market.
You have identified families with children who are interested in health foods in the major cities as your target market.
Discuss how the economic and technological macro environments (external environment) may impact the marketing strategies you choose to implement. Give specific examples related to your discussion
(300 words total)
Question 4 (7 marks)
Discuss each of the five stages in the consumer decision making process when purchasing a gold necklace for a close female relative who is in her late 50s. You should combine your discussion with theories provided in the lectures. (250 words)
Question 5 (7 marks)
Discuss what and how personal factors influence consumer behavior. Provide an example of how age affects a consumer’s taste in products to support your discussion. (300 words)
Question 6 (7 marks)
Social Media is rarely used as the only source for brand communications. Identify and explain in detail at least three reasons why. (300 words)
Submission instructions:
• Save submission with your STUDENT ID NUMBER and UNIT CODE e.g. EMV5897 HI5004
• Submission must be in MICROSOFT WORD FORMAT ONLY
• Upload your submission to the appropriate link on Blackboard
• Only one submission is accepted. Please ensure your submission is the correct document.
• All submissions are automatically passed through SafeAssign to assess academic integrity.
Reference requirements
Assessment Design – Adapted Harvard Referencing
Holmes will be implementing as a pilot program a revised Harvard approach to referencing. The following guidelines apply:
1. Reference sources in assignments are limited to sources which provide full text access to the source’s content for lecturers and markers.
2. The Reference list should be located on a separate page at the end of the essay and titled: References.
3. It should include the details of all the in-text citations, arranged alphabetically A-Z by author surname. In addition, it MUST include a hyperlink to the full text of the cited reference source.
For example;
P Hawking, B McCarthy, A Stein (2004), Second Wave ERP Education, Journal of Information Systems Education, Fall,
4. All assignments will require additional in-text reference details which will consist of the surname of the author/authors or name of the authoring body, year of publication, page number of content, paragraph where the content can be found.
For example;
“The company decided to implement a enterprise wide data warehouse business intelligence strategies (Hawking et al, 2004, p3(4)).”

Non Adherence to Referencing Guidelines
Where students do not follow the above guidelines:
1. Students who submit assignments which do not comply with the guidelines will be asked to resubmit their assignments.
2. Late penalties will apply, as per the Student Handbook each day, after the student/s have been notified of the resubmission requirements.
3. Students who comply with guidelines and the citations are “fake” will be reported for academic misconduct.

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Law, Policing & Forensics
Session: 2020/2021
Semester: 01
Module Code: LAWS40501
30 Credits (50% Weighting)
Due Date:
6th August 2021
Due Time:
Examiners: J. Beswick
G. De Silva
H. Widanapathirana
Word Limit: Maximum word limit of 2500 words
There is only one question. Issues contained in the extended problem case study must be addressed.
There is only one percentage grade available for this examination.
Answer to be submitted online as per the instructions given.
The University/ Department reserves the to right to change exam conditions unilaterally at its sole discretion, after giving appropriate notice to students.
Please note that this question is subject to the approval of the external examiner.
This scenario is set pre Covid-19 pandemic.
Northern Trains owned and operated by Arriva North Ltd. operates both passenger and cargo trains across Northern England. One morning, a passenger train driven by Alec, who had been employed as a train driver by Arriva North Ltd. crashed onto the back of a stationary goods train also owned and operated by Arriva North Ltd. As a result, the following incidents had occurred.
[a] Claire and Teesha, university students who take the train commute daily had been passengers in Alec’s train. Claire had sustained an open fracture to her right leg. She is taken to the hospital and required immediate surgery to fix the fracture and close the wound. At the hospital, she develops a serious infection that requires medication to be administered intravenously. Due to the infection she had to be hospitalised for an extended period which resulted her missing the final examinations. After presenting the required medical certificates she has been allowed to sit at the next available exams, but the exam attempt costs £125.
[b] Teesha, has suffered injuries to her back, which has aggravated her preexisting back problem. Upon being discharged from the hospital she has been instructed not to engage in strenuous activities for 3 months. Despite the medical advice she continued her work as a gym instructor at the University Gym and started complaining of serious pains. After medical examination it transpired that she had sustained permanent injuries to her back.
[c] Eesha, who knew her twin sister Teesha takes the train daily suffers a psychiatric breakdown upon seeing images of the accident on a special news broadcast, and because she feared for Teesha’s safety, Eesha is now suffering from a clinical depression.
[d] During the accident, a coach from the passenger train rolled down an embankment and damaged Freddy’s meat shop. The meat shop had to be closed for a month while being repaired, resulting in a loss of income to Freddy. Also, the meat in the freezers had to be disposed of as Freddy was unable to keep the shop open until the conclusion of the repairs.
Discuss the potential liability of Arriva North Ltd.

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Part 3 – Learning Activities and Assignments

FNS50315 Diploma of Finance and Mortgage Broking Management
Summary of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………3
How to Submit your Assessment Tasks…………………………………………………………………………5
Frequently Asked Questions………………………………………………………………………………………..5
ASSIGNMENT 1 of 5 – LOAN SUBMISSION [20 Marks]…………………………………………………..11
ASSIGNMENT 3 of 5 – THEORY ASSESSMENT [30 Marks]………………………………………………21
Mandatory Feedback Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………………..35
Summary of Contents
This section consists of the following assessment tasks:
A. Part 1 Learning Activity questions (90 marks) – if not already provided to you please email to obtain the link to complete this task online
B. Part 2 Learning Activity questions (60 marks) – if not already provided to you please email to obtain the link to complete this task online
C. Assignment 1 – CASE STUDY 1 – You are required to complete 1 submission to a
lender on behalf of these clients (20 marks)
D. Assignment 2 – CASE STUDY 2 – You are required to complete 2 submissions for
these equipment finance clients (20 marks)
E. Assignment 3 – THEORY ASSIGNMENT – This is an open book, multiple-question assignment on some of the topics studied within this course (30 marks)
F. Assignment 4 – SERVICING AND RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT – You are required to use what you have learned and your research skills to obtain information necessary to understand the complex requirements and risks when providing broking services to clients with complex loan needs (30 marks)
G. Assignment 5 – SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING Business Plan – You are required to use the information provided in Part 1 along with research on the internet or in Appendix to prepare a Sustainability Business Plan (30 marks) H. Compulsory Education Department Feedback form
All items above are required by NFI
Total possible marks = 280. To reach a Competent status for this Diploma qualification, trainees need to achieve 80% for each of the A. and B. Learning Activity online questions and 80% for each of the 5 assignments.
Instructions –
Instructions help you understand the questions and complete the assignment.
Questions/Scenario –
There may be one or more questions relating to the competencies you are required to demonstrate.
Trainees must ensure that the Cover Sheet provided is included with the full completed 5 Assignment submission (ie. use the provided cover sheet as the front page to your 5 assignments and submit together).
The Assessment process for Module 2 of the Full Diploma is comprised of online questions + 5 assignments. You are required to complete the online questions then submit the remaining 5 assignments together.
Please note, extensive answers are not always required. Brief answers may be appropriate for some questions as long as you ensure your response adequately addresses the question.
IMPORTANT: Presenting your Assessment submission in a format that is clear and appropriately structured forms part of your assessment and also demonstrates your ability to communicate ideas and concepts and use technology.
After NFI has reviewed your Learning Activity question answers and your 5 Assignments have been marked, your marks will be advised put into the online platform.
All Assessments tasks should be submitted together ie. at the same time, either by mail or email or by uploading into the online platform.
Your completed assessments will NOT be returned to you as they are retained for audit purposes as required.
The assessment tasks will also be used to assess your language and literacy skills. The assessor will check your assignments to ensure
? that they are accurate with correct grammar and punctuation
? that they are appropriate to the target audience
? that they show planning and organisational skill
? that they demonstrate your ability to search for products and service information and use problem solving approaches to identify customer needs and expectations.
TIME LIMITS – You have 12 months in which to complete all of your course assessments for both Module 1 and Module 2 of this course. You may submit your assessments at any time within this period. Extensions are only available after this time for an additional fee. If your 12 months expires you will no longer have online access available.
PASS MARK – The assessments above together form the full assessment content of this Diploma course and you are required to achieve 80% on each assessment task in order to pass the course.
KEEP A COPY – With all assessments submitted you should ensure you retain an electronic or scanned or photocopied record of your submissions for your own files and in case of possible loss in transit.
How to Submit your Assessment Tasks
HOW TO SUBMIT YOUR ASSESSMENTS – There are three options for submitting your written assessments as below. Please ensure a Cover Sheet is included.
Option 1 – Mail
The National Finance Institute
P.O. Box 1354
Capalaba Business Centre Qld 4157
Option 2 – Email
Email your work to
Option 3 – Upload
If you have access to the online portal where you complete your learning activity questions, then you have the option to upload assignments in this same portal.
To contact NFI:
Phone: 1300 765 400
Frequently Asked Questions
Q. Can I send my assessments through as I do them?
A. You should complete your online questions through the online platform then submit all of your other assessments together at the one time. From both Module 1 and Module 2.
Q. Is there an attachment file size limit for emailing?
A. Yes, if you are scanning your assessments you need to scan in black & white to keep the file size small. All of your assessment tasks should be sent in one email, not multiple emails. Total maximum attachment file size is 10Mb by email or 8Mb by upload.
Q. How should I name my assessments?
A. It is important that you name every file name with your own name and what it contains.
An example is below. You must adhere to this process. Example:
Vivien Xiao FNS50315 Diploma course Assignments.doc
Q. What if I can’t get my file sizes small enough?
A. You will need to print and mail your assessments if you cannot reduce the file size to within the 10Mb size limit.
Q. How long before I receive my results?
A. Please allow up to 3 weeks for marking of your assessments.
Q. Can I get faster marking?
A. Marking will be completed as soon as possible and is dependent on the quantity of marking we have at any one time. In most cases, your assessments will be marked in less than 2 weeks but please allow up to 3 weeks as a maximum. We also offer an Express Marking option for a fee which will reduce marking time down to 3 business days. Please phone 1300 765 400 if Express Marking is required.
Q. What if I don’t pass one of my assessments?
A. You will be allowed an additional 2 attempts to complete each assessment if you do not pass the first time. We will email to let you know if you do not pass first time and will provide you with detailed feedback to assist with your resubmission. You will then have 21 days to resubmit.
Q. How long do I have to resubmit a failed assessment task?
A. You have 21 days only in which to re-submit your assessment
Q. Once I pass, how can I get my certificate?
A. Once your assessments have each reached a minimum of 80% your certificate will go in line to be produced within 1 to 2 weeks of your pass. Your certificate and transcript will be sent by regular mail.
Q. My letterbox is small, will my certificate be okay?
A. We stamp our mailing envelopes with “please do not bend”. If you do not receive your certificate within the above guidelines and have not heard from us, please check your local post office in case your envelope is being held there. It is Australia Post policy that if the postman considers your envelope may be damaged from inserting into your letterbox, then they may hold at the local post office for collection by you.
Q. I have changed my address since I first enrolled, what should I do?
A. Please let us know your new mailing address as soon as you are aware of it so that we can ensure our mail will reach you. If you do not advise us of your change of address, your certificate will need to be reissued at a fee of $29.95 and may take an additional 3 weeks.
Q. My friend has done these assignments and I have used my friend’s calculations, is this okay?
A. To avoid us recording your work as a plagiarised submission, you must ensure that your assignments are 100% your own work. NFI procedures are in place to determine if copying has occurred and using another person’s submission as your own is not acceptable.


Part 1 and Part 2
Learning Activity Questions
Learning Activity Questions
These questions form part of your final marks
Please complete online at
Workshop trainees: your trainer will provide you with instructions and the link
Distance learning trainees: please refer to the email you received upon enrolment which included your enrolment key
Online learning trainees: please refer to the email you received upon enrolment which included your enrolment key
Please contact NFI if you have any difficulties
Ph 1300 765 400 or
Your assignment cover sheet follows overleaf.
This cover sheet is also provided in the online platform as an interactive document if you prefer to type your cover sheet.
I declare that the attached material is all my own work, that it is free of plagiarism and that all sources have been properly acknowledged.
Signed ___________________________________________ Date _______________________
My method of enrolment in this course was:
• – I attended a face-to-face workshop in …………………………………………………… (city) on ……………………………….. (date).
• – I enrolled as a distance learning student and received my course material by mail
• – I enrolled as an online e-learning student and completed my course online
Trainee NAME:
POSTAL Address:
Phone (home) Phone (work)
Fax Phone (mobile)
Email address
Preferred method of contact
This page for NFI OFFICE USE ONLY Trainee name: ___________________________
Name of Assessor: _____________________________________
Date Assessment received: _____________________________________
Trainer’s comments:


Overview The purpose of this task is to allow you to demonstrate that you can complete the major steps required in broking or writing a moderately complex loan for a customer – through identification, development and implementation of loan options while assessing and managing risks. The samples in Appendix a) and b) will prove helpful. Remember that what you prepare would, in the real world, need to be presented to the client orally and thus must be understood by them.
INSTRUCTIONS Read the scenario provided and using the information and data supplied, prepare a formal loan submission for a lender using the following headings. Use subheadings where appropriate to ensure your submission will be easily read and understood by the lender.
The client file should contain the standard client information and data that would be included in a typical submission for a loan of this complexity. Your lender submission should include as a minimum the following headings:
1. Borrower’s Details
2. Background
3. Loan Purpose
4. Facility Details
5. Funds Position
6. Servicing Capacity
7. Security
8. Risk Assessment and Management (according to lender policy, guidelines and relevant legislation). Consideration must be given to any environmental, heritage or native title implications
9. Recommendations
10. List of Attachments*
* Attachments which would normally be included in a submission to a lender need only be listed for the purpose of this assignment. You will not need to create “dummy” supporting documents.
Information Andrew Bisset has been a real estate agent for over 20 years and jointly with his wife Jane own 6 shops at 55 Park Road, Belmont. Mr and Mrs Bisset own the shopping centre under the Bisset Family Trust. The property was valued 2 years ago at $1,450,000 and has a current ABZ Bank Mortgage of $625,000.
Five of the shops are rented out for $96,000. The sixth shop is occupied by Mr Bisset’s real estate business, Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd, which pays annual rental of $42,000 to the family trust. For tax purposes Bisset’s Real Estate pays rent which is $20,000 in excess of the fair market rental value of the shop it occupies.
Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd was formed at the beginning of the last financial year to take over the real estate agency business, which was previously conducted by a partnership between Mr Bisset and Joseph Hooper. Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd took over the business when Mr Hooper retired and Andrew Bisset is the sole director of Bisset’s Real Estate Pty
Mr and Mrs Bisset now wish to acquire 3,000m2 of land near their existing shopping centre and hold it for 1 – 2 years pending rezoning. The purchase price is $600,000. The land was previously used as a State Government Health and Dental Centre, but the building was demolished when it became obsolete. The land is currently zoned ‘Special Purpose’, but the local council earmarked the land for future ‘Commercial’ use in it recently released Town Planning Scheme. The land is located at 423 Belmont Road, Belmont and has a two street frontage with considerable passing traffic.
The Bissets have contracted to purchase the property in their capacity as trustees of their family trust and settlement is due with 60 days. They wish to raise 100% of the purchase price plus $25,000 for stamp duty, financing and conveyancing costs. They are willing to offer both the land and their existing shopping centre as security for the proposed loan. They will contribute a further $20,000 over the next 1-2 years to cover the costs associated with re-zoning of the property and obtaining approval to develop another shopping centre.
Unfortunately ABZ Bank policy does not allow them to lend against land zoned ‘Special Purpose’ and cannot assist with the purchase. The Bissets have appointed you to approach an alternative lender to refinance their ABZ Bank Loan and obtain the additional funds required.
Assume an interest rate of 7% for a commercial loan, 9% for an overdraft.
Andrew Mark Bisset – DOB 29/07 1965 DL # 2945758
Jane Elizabeth Bisset – DOB 15/06 1967 DL # 2786454
Married with three adult children (one working in the real estate business)
Address: 12 Currumbin Close, Carindale QLD 4152
Accountant – Ainslie and Partners Telephone – 07 3349 9999
Work History
Information Andrew has been a real estate agent for 22 years in the Brisbane South East area, he specialises in commercial and industrial property (rent roll comprises 75% commercial and industrial properties). His gross salary last financial year was $78,000. In the previous financial year he drew $55,000 from the partnership with Joseph Hooper.
Jane has worked as the property manager since Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd took over the agency after the partnership. Her salary last financial year was $43,000. She did not work in the previous financial year.
Last Financial year Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd recorded the following financial results:
Gross Revenue $346,000
Net Profit $ 72,000
Depreciation $ 14,000
Director Superannuation $ 11,000
In the previous financial year the partnership of Andrew Bisset and Joseph Hooper trading as Bisset’s Real Estate recorded the following financial results:
Gross Revenue $422,000
Net Profit $ 84,000
Depreciation $ 16,000
Director Superannuation $ 11,000
The Bisset Family Trust purchased the shopping centre at Park Road Belmont 18 months ago and its financial statements for the past financial year are as follows:
Gross Rental Income $138,000
Loan Interest $ 52,000
Management Fees $ 11,000 (paid to Bisset’s RE Pty Ltd)
Net Profit $ 50,000
Depreciation $ 25,00
Financial Position – Andrew and Jane Bisset
House at 12 Currumbin Close Carindale QLD 0
Share Portfolio (Blues Chip Listed Shares) $345,000
Motor Vehicles $ 60,000
Furniture $ 85,000
Cash at Bank $ 45,000
Home Loan with ABZ Bank $190,000
ABZ Bank Credit Card (Limit $20,000) $ 10,000
Financial Position of Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd
Business Goodwill $250,000
Plant & Equipment $ 35,000
Debtors $ 30,000
ABZ Bank Overdraft (limit $40,000 secured by residence) $25,000
(Keep in mind that, in the absence of actual tax returns which would confirm the income distribution of the trust, any profit would be distributed and taxed in the hands of the beneficiaries. For the purposes of this assignment, assume company tax of 27.5%, even though in -real life- of course you cannot assume and the
distributions would be clear in “real life” financials.)
Property being purchased
Vacant Land
423 Belmont Road, Belmont QLD 4171
Lot 84 on RP 9564
Zoning “Special Purpose”
Area 3000m2
Existing Property
Shopping Centre
55 Park Road, Belmont QLD 4171
Lot 43 on RP 9542
Zoning “Commercial”
Area 1850m2

Tenant Rent Term Rent Review
J & R Blend
T/A Blend News $22,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI
Copelin Accounting Pty Ltd $18,000 pa net 1 + 1 + 1 years Annually by CPI
R Spragos
T/A Roger’s Deli $28,000 pa net 5 + 5 years Annually by CPI
Vu Nguyen
T/A Care Pharmacy $20,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI
M Goodson
T/A Good Alterations $8,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI
Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd $42,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI

INSTRUCTIONS The assessment for this module is to prepare TWO submissions (see A and B below):
Part A: This first submission is for the client so that they have the facts on all their obligations and fees and the structure of the loan. Remember that what you prepare would, in the real world, need to be presented to the client orally and thus must be understood by them.
Part B: This second submission is for the lender – a loan application to the lender in order to gain pre-approval.
1. Prepare a list of questions that you would need to ask your clients about the proposed transaction, that is, prepare your needs analysis (ie. Fact Find).
2. In a suitable format, prepare a submission for the clients ie. a Proposal document.
What your client submission should include:
1. The parties to the loan
2. The security
3. The facility details
4. Lender details (options, recommendations) that are able to lend
5. Confirmation of the client’s complex requirements
6. The personnel that may be involved: eg. the client’s solicitor, accountant, financial advisor
7. The client’s responsibilities, so the client fully understands the loan
8. An outline as to the process timing and what the client needs to arrange
9. The documentation needed to commence the borrowing
10. The name in which the client will sign the contract to purchase
11. A summary of all fees and charges
12. Your notes detailing how you have provided appropriate contact with the client throughout the complex broking process
The samples in Appendix a) and b) will assist.
Prepare a loan submission to the lender for pre-approval.
Your submission should include as a minimum the following headings:
1. Borrower’s Details
2. Background
3. Loan Purpose
4. Facility Details
5. Funds Position
6. Servicing Capacity
7. Security
8. Risk Assessment and Management (according to lender policy, guidelines and relevant legislation). Consideration must be given to any environmental, heritage or native title implications
9. Recommendations
10. List of Attachments*
* Attachments which would normally be included in a submission to a lender need only be listed for the purpose of this assignment. You will not need to create “dummy” supporting documents.
REQUIREMENTS In order to be deemed competent, you will need to evidence the ability to:
• Develop detailed broking options designed to maximise the client’s outcomes and reach client objectives which incorporate elements from research and which address complex needs and issues
• Identify and describe key assumptions upon which the plan is based
• Provide a detailed analysis of research strategies and findings
• Test and make appropriate checks on a proposed plan for its integrity and compliance
• Assess the impacts of taxation, social security, economic and other government policies on client investment and financial requirements
• Interpret and comply with industry regulations and codes of practice
• Identify the roles of associated financial advisers and work effectively with them
• Assess broking options, financial markets and investment characteristics
• Use appropriate sales and marketing methodologies and provide justification and research evidence
• Gain client feedback on and/or agreement to the plan
• Prepare materials and personnel to effectively implement complex loan structures
• Establish appropriate audit trails and effectively document records and data.
SCENARIO Commercial Equipment Finance for Ray Henley and Steve Manning
The clients you met with this morning have been referred to you by another commercial client.
They are joint company owners Ray Henley and Steve Manning and they run a successful and growing transport company. They have a diverse client base spread over many industry sectors which is a conscious management strategy to ensure that they do not have significant business risk to a specific market segment or client. All contracts are written with 30 day payment terms. Background industry checks as well as credit history checks are completed on all new business prospects to ensure that there are no adverse issues that may impact on future trading arrangements.
Whilst they have only been trading for 34 months they have a solid business plan with actual results to date exceeding projected sales and profit estimates included in their plan.
The business was established with unsecured (apart from Personal Guarantees) Seed Capital of $500k from a private investor based on a guaranteed return of $45k pa, and an overall term of 5 years which also requires a principal reduction of $100k pa. The loan can be repaid at any time without penalty.
Ray and Steve’s Requirements
To accommodate new contracts in hand and planned future expansion, the applicants require establishment of an Equipment Finance Limit of $500k to purchase Trucks and Dog Trailers in the next 12 months. On the advice of their accountant, a new entity, Henman Holdings Pty Ltd ATF The Henman Discretionary Trust, has been established to purchase equipment which will be internally hired to Henman Transport Pty Ltd (the trading entity). Hire charges will equate to finance payments. Ray and Steve are directors of both companies. The longer term intention is for the Trust to acquire premises to be occupied by Henman Transport Pty Ltd.
As part of this expansion the company has leased a second depot at a cost of $6,000pm and will also retain the existing depot.
They currently have 5 employees and where needed are using sub-contract operators to fill shortfall in their delivery capacity. Purchase of new additional trucks and trailers will provide additional capacity and flexibility and reduce reliance on sub-contractors who can be unreliable.
Whilst a limit is being sought, purchases will only proceed where additional work has been contracted or older equipment is being replaced. Applicants are happy to provide half yearly management accounts as an approval covenant to give a lender comfort that projected sales and profits are in line with budgets.
Applicants are keen to reduce debt as quickly as possible and have therefore decided to finance all new equipment over a 48 month term, without a balloon/residual and will commit a refund of GST Input Credits as additional repayments built into the contracted loan structure.
Initial Fact Find Ray and Steve have both been in the transport industry for many years each being Financial Controllers for major transport companies. Ray has an MBA and Steve a marketing degree. These combined skills complement each other and assist in the effective management of the business. Ray is married and has no dependants. His wife is a school teacher and she will be retiring at the end of the year.
Steve is single and is presently completing a HR degree as they feel that as the business grows these skills will be required.
Steve and Ray have provided the last two year’s financial accounts for the trading business, as well as interim accounts for the current financial year.
(Note: You need to calculate the required servicing for the new debt and surplus required for lender comfort. Assume an interest rate of 10% for the proposed debt)
Financial accounts
? Year 1- Sales $700k Net Profit $240,000
? Year 2- Sales $812k Net Profit $358,000
? Current year interim indication- Sales $1.125m Net Profit $506,000 (10 months); Operating Costs include – Depreciation $86,000, Interest $52,000, Sub-contractors $71,000, Directors’ Superannuation $60,000
? Wages to partner one $100,000 (paid as Fully Franked Dividend)
? Wages to partner two $100,000 (paid as Fully Franked Dividend)
? Payment to private investor (flat fee) $45,000- Expensed in P&L as Finance Cost
? Existing Equipment Finance (Chattel Mortgages) repayments of $5,000pm
Key Balance
Sheet Items ? Ray Henley net income $100,000 (paid as fully franked dividend), owner occupied property $850,000 with debt of $250,000 (assume 7.2% P&I), credit card limit $25,000 (with debt of $15,000, assume at 3.8%), contents $100,000, superannuation $550,000, motor vehicle $40,000 with nil debt.
? Steve Manning – net income $100,000 (paid as Fully Franked Dividend), owner occupied property $500,000 with debt of $350,000 (assume 7.2% P&I), credit card limit $10,000 (with debt of $3,000, assume at 3.8%), contents $85,000, superannuation $150,000, motor vehicle $25,000 with debt of $15,000 (assume five year debt at 9%).
? Cash in business account $25,000.
Cash $25,000
Debtors $220,000
Creditors $100,000
They currently meet all creditor payments at 30-day terms.
Debtor collection has been solid with active management of debtors and pre-contract investigation of new clients.
They have just signed a delivery contract with Organic Flower Growers who supply to Coles Supermarkets state-wide. To accommodate this work their initial purchase will be a refrigerated Pantec truck at a cost of $145,000. Projected net profit from this contract is $60k pa.
P.T.O. for additional Tips on this assignment.
1. In this Assignment 2, your submission can be either:
a) Consolidation of all income and debt in assessing servicing capacity OR
b) Separate residential and commercial calculations.
2. Presentation – Although in real life you may well present the client part of this assignment in person to the client/verbally, for the purposes of this assignment please present your submission in a written report format. Remember to include Part A, the list of questions that you would need to ask your clients about the proposed transaction, that is, prepare your needs analysis/Fact Find. Then make use of Appendix a) and b) for guidance on layout.
Note that Appendix b) has key content points on page 3.
3. Risk management is the forecasting and evaluation of financial risks together with the identification of procedures to avoid or minimize their impact. If you take a look at Ray and Steve’s requirements and the -fact find- area in the scenario, this will assist you in providing possible risks and the relevant information to mitigate these risks, for example strong servicing, short loan term with no balloon, etc.
4. Funds Position – As explained in Appendix b), the Funds Position should include a calculation of required funds including purchase price and costs to ensure that borrowings and equity are sufficient to complete the transaction. The clients are potentially buying equipment costing $500,000 and it would be reasonable to say 100% borrowing requested. Brokerage is payable by the lender and included in the loan repayments to them so there is no additional cost in relation to brokerage.
5. Loan Repayments – If the loan is $500,000 and you calculate the P&I repayment amount of $21.25 (showing under the 5 Years column in the Monthly Repayment Calculator table in Appendix m), you would get a monthly repayment figure of $10,625 per month. However the scenario in this Assignment 2 is based around a 4 year term not a 5 year term so your calculation of the repayment amount would be a higher figure per month. If preferred, you may also, or instead, source and utilise an online Chattel Mortgage repayment calculator.
6. Servicing Capacity – You can assume that the lender will allow you to use three addbacks: Depreciation, Interest and the full amount of Directors’ superannuation (because they are paying themselves in the form of fully franked dividends, not salary). Remember also to use the rate of 27.5% when you work out the taxation on income. So simplistically you will have income less tax, then add back the addbacks, take away their commitments and you’ll be left with the servicing surplus and the DSCR.
7. Security – Security in the way of a mortgage over the homes of the Directors could be taken but it is probably unnecessary in this case. The more likely security would comprise of the Goods (trucks and trailer), the Directors’ Guarantees and the GSA from Henman Transport Pty Ltd.


– 5 marks for each question
When responding to the following questions you are to describe the processes and resources used in each situation. Please provide evidence of any templates, organisational material or technology used and/or provided to the client in each situation. All references to written material or websites used must be provided (simple format).
Question # Question Detail
1. Describe how you gather the information required when establishing the client’s complex lending requirements?
In answering this question you should refer to:
• Explanation of the services provided to the client
• Listening and questioning techniques you employ
• Your use of language appropriate to any cultural differences
• Your interpersonal skills and how you would deal with any emotive issues sensitively
• Your ability to build/establish rapport
• Your professionalism
• Your communication skills
• Your provision of appropriate contact with client throughout the complex broking process
2. Describe how you record and document your interaction with clients?
In answering this question you must refer to:
• Templates used to gather information in initial interview
• Diarising or recording telephone conversations
• Procedures that are established for critical implementation, timing and priorities
• The documentation gathered
• Any technology used to record or gather information.
• How you access and use appropriate specialist software, organisational templates, spreadsheets and databases
• How your recommendations and loan structures, as presented to clients, are documented according to organisation guidelines and procedures
3. Describe how you research and consider complex broking solutions based on the clients’ needs?
In answering this question you must refer to:
• How special or complex features of a client’s situation and objectives are discussed, reviewed and clarified
• The analysis of the client situation to determine opportunities and constraints
• Research into loan structures or options including those which are new or non-standard
• Consideration of financial issues in terms of economic, legislation, taxation, legal, insurance
• In what conditions would the broker need to refer clients to a Tier One advisor (eg. financial advisor or accountant)
• How possible loan structure or options are analysed, modeled, prioritised and measured
• The process used to reject inappropriate options including checks to ensure compliance with relevant Acts
• Assessment of options to successfully achieve the client’s objectives
• How you liaise with others, share information, listen and understand.
4. Describe and/or provide evidence of how you identify and manage risk when dealing with clients with complex loan requirements?
In answering this question you must consider:
• Risk evaluation criteria eg. undertaking risk categorisation and determining the level of risk
• Risk assessment tools (eg. valuation practices)
• Communication of the aspects of the valuation result/s to clients
• Discussion on the issues around an adverse valuation
• Establishment of the probability of risk including the severity and/or impact
• Identification of stakeholders and how throughout the loan process o you seek their views o provide pertinent risk information – clearly describe risks o recommend amendments to existing controls and report any need for new controls
• How would you as a professional in the industry ensure that you comply with industry and government requirements and professional codes of practice?
• How would you read and interpret organisational and industry information?
5. Provide an example of how you present the loan options to the client, including an explanation of why you chose that option or options. This also must state the name of the lender and an explanation of why you chose that lender.
In answering this question you must consider: how you guide the client through options including:
• Discussion of impact – advantages, disadvantages, risks and financial implications
• Fees charges and commissions inclusive of any fees paid by the lender directly to the broker
• How would you explain to the client the lender conditions as they comply with relevant legislation, regulatory guidelines, industry sector compliance requirements and the lenders policy
• Research and documentation provided to the client
• Consultation required with other financial services professionals
(eg. accountants, lawyers, financial planners, valuers, etc.)
• Confirmation that the client understands the options presented and any concerns are addressed
• Providing information on complaints resolution procedures (internal and external) as included in the information provided to the client.
6. Prior to presenting the loan options to the client did you identify any concerns that the client may raise? What preparation was completed to respond to these concerns?
• Research/documentation materials
• Alternative recommendations
• Regulatory limits and financier guidelines
In your answer you should also refer to your ability to:
• Identify and respond appropriately to client concerns
• Exercise restraint when dealing with clients in conflict situations
• The process used to gain agreement to proceed from the client.


– 5 marks for each question
Question 1
In this exercise we are analysing some financial statements in preparation for completing a submission to a financier. The scenario is provided below and an income statement and balance sheet is then provided for Wholesale Butchers.
You will then have 3 tasks to complete – A, B and C below. TIP: You may wish to reference the INT Services Practice Activity which you completed in Part 1 of the course learning guide:
A. Using the 2 financial statements provided for Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd, calculate the ratios in the table provided and comment as to the risk using Low/Medium/High rating:
B. Complete the manual Serviceability Analysis for Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd by inserting the figures into the table provided
C. List your comments on the outcome from your completed Serviceability Analysis as you would if presenting this in a submission to a lender.
Mr Brett Olsen has owned his wholesale butcher company “Wholesale Butchers” for the past four years. He is the sole director and shareholder of the company. The past six months has seen an influx in orders and, to keep up with demand, he requires another refrigerated van in order to maintain delivery standards and turnaround times to his respective buyers.
Mr Olsen wants to purchase a secondhand van, 1 year old, from RV Dealers for $55,000 and is considering a 5 year Chattel Mortgage (CM), with an interest rate of 9% and monthly repayments of $1,133.21. He has opted not to provide a deposit and is not seeking any balloon at the end of the loan term. As no deposit is to be applied, repayments will be monthly in advance.
Mr Olsen’s only business debts are an overdraft with CBA with a limit of $25,000 and current balance of $2,800 at 9% and his CM with 6% loan with Esanda for his existing refrigerated van, with monthly repayments of $1,058 pm and 2 years remaining.
His financials for the financial years ending 2018 and 2019 are provided here for your
perusal and assessment (only $ are shown in financials, not cents, so there is some rounding in totals).
Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd
Income Statement For the financial year ending 30 June 2019
2018 2019
$ $
Sales 485,000 509,250
Cost of Goods Sold 291,000 305,550
Gross Profit 194,000 203,700
Operating Expenses Advertising 1,250 1,300
Amortisation 500 500
Depreciation 9,000 7,650
Interest 4,372 3,735
Office Equipment 1,000 1,100
Rent 29,100 30,555
Salaries (Directors) 32,000 35,000
Stationery 800 925
Utilities 25,000 26,000
Vehicle Expenses 9,700 10,185
Wages/Staff 48,500 50,925
Total Operating Expenses 161,222 167,875
Net Profit 32,778 35,825
Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd
Balance Sheet For the financial year ending 30 June 2019
2018 2019
Current Assets Cash 22,945 25,078
Receivables 4,042 4,244
Stock on Hand (inventory) 5,596 5,876
Total Current Assets 32,582 35,197
Non-Current Assets Plant and equipment 24,000 21,600
Vehicles 35,000 29,750
Other Non-Current Assets 2,348 2,574
Intangibles (Formation Costs) 6,250 5,750
Total Non-Current Assets 67,598 59,674
Total Assets
LIABILITIES 100,180 94,871
Current Liabilities Creditors 11,192 11,752
Overdraft CBA (Limit $25,000) 3,600 2,800
CM Esanda Current Portion ($1058×12) 12,696 12,696
Provisions Employees 4,042 4,244
Other 598 637
Total Current Liabilities 32,128 32,129
Non-Current Liabilities CM Esanda Long Term Portion 22,256 11,295
Total Liabilities Total Non-Current Liabilities 22,256 11,295
and Provisions 54,384 43,424
NET ASSETS (Owners’ Equity or Shareholders’ funds) 45,796 51,448
NB. Notes to the balance sheet and income statement have been omitted for this exercise however must be provided with every loan submission.

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History summary of the Book “A Pocket Guide to Writing in History.”
A Pocket Guide to Writing is a brief guide that offers guidelines on the best writing and research skills necessary for undergraduate history courses. Mary Lynn Rampolla writes the book. It comprehensively covers all steps of the research and writing process, including elaborate advice on avoiding plagiarism. The book is subdivided into three chapters covering a broader range of topics making it compact enough to be tuck into a pocket. The eighth edition provides fundamental guidance on the tested skill of “doing history.” It reflects on the emerging aspects of history pedagogy and offers advice on the impact of technology in writing and researching in history. The author was encouraged by his colleagues at Trinity Washington University.
Chapter one offers a reflection on the importance of studying history and how to use historical evidence. The chapter records that studying history tells us how we to be and who we are.
It also looks at the origins of modern institutions, allows people to see the world from different angles and perspectives. Moreover, studying history helps individuals make informed decisions regarding the future by comprehending the complexities of the past have shaped the world.
The second chapter focuses on identifying and categorizing sources and the use of those categories. It is noted that sources fall into two categories, which include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources entail the materials produced directly by individuals on the topic of discussion. On the other hand, secondary sources consist of books and films produced by people who are not historians, journalists or writers. Primary sources enable one to enter the lives of those people he or she is studying. Seconar3y sources provide a broader perspective of past events and allow a person to use them in context.
Finally, the third chapter provides the best approaches to typical assignments. It guides reading strategies. The reading strategies provided includes pre-reading the text to get a sense of the article, determining the author’s thesis to absorb the text more effectively, reading with the thesis in mind, critiquing the article and reviewing what you have written

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Part A
Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson theorized middle adulthood as the stage of Generativity – Versus – Stagnation as the in middle adulthood in which individuals consider their contributions to their society, family, community and work (Feldman 2017 pg. 585). According to Erick, this psychosocial stage of development occurs during middle adulthood (between 40 – 65 years of age). Through mentoring or parenting, people strive to provide guidance and encouragement to their future generations during the generativity stage. They can choose to contribute to other people’s lives in positive ways. Moreover, the generativity stage suggests that people will try to make a mark on the world by caring for other people and creating and doing things that make the world a better place to live. Nevertheless, stagnation refers to a person’s failure to contribute, and consequently, such a person disconnects or gets uninvolved with the community or society. Several individuals who go through the Generativity Versus Stagnation stage can successfully have a sense of accomplishment towards their contribution to their society or community.
Nevertheless, in development, Erick Erickson considers Ego Integrity Versus Despair Stage to be the final stage. In this stage, according to Feldman (2017, pg. 655), the human being is known for looking back over his life, evaluating it, in addition to coming to terms with it. This stage has been taking place in late adulthood, which starts at 65 until death; people can be paying attention to evaluating their contribution and accomplishment and impacts they have made to community, society and comes into agreement with facing the end. Hence, ego integrity is successfully achieved. Though several adults can look back and develop a sense of regret with their lives, such adults can feel that they could not accomplish what they work for or missed out on opportunities. Consequently, these adults are likely to become angry, depressed or unhappy. Therefore, if the adults do not become successful at this stage, they can become victims of despair.
Consequently, a positive or negative outcome can be brought about by occurrence. As an attempt to accomplish each development stage before time, many people go social challenges; hence, making it difficult for them to have positive relationships with other people. For some people, these challenges have been leading to negative outcomes. Nevertheless, in the generativity stage, a positive outcome can emerge when society’s social aspects are understood and managed. While ego integrity versus despair stage, failure to achieve goals will make an individual view late adulthood negatively, they can face challenges fitting into society; hence, in late adulthood, a lot of care is needed. Thus, a positive or adverse result can be achieved by event. As an endeavor to achieve every improvement stage before time, numerous individuals go social difficulties; consequently, making it hard for them to have positive associations with others. For certain individuals, these difficulties have been prompting adverse results. By the by, in the generativity stage, a positive result can arise when society’s social angles are perceived and overseen. While sense of self honesty versus despair stage, inability to accomplish objectives will make an individual view late adulthood adversely, they can confront difficulties finding a way into society; subsequently, in late adulthood, a ton of care is required.
Part B
During late adulthood, human beings have been undergoing both cognitive and physical changes, which affect their quality of life and lastly lead them to death. Nevertheless, motor abilities, physical appearance, and sensation are profoundly affected in late adulthood. The formation of wrinkles starts, and the skin starts becoming thin and less elastic. Beneath the surface of the skin, the small blood vessels break. Moreover, the age spots form on the body. As melanin decreases, hair turns gray and thin. Since the bone density decreases, the height of an individual lessens by an inch or two. The aging’s double standard applies to men and women into older adulthood, like how it was in middle adulthood. Older men can still best distinguish, as older women are being referred to over the hill, and past the prime of life.
As the senses start to become dull, with age, the eyes’ lenses become rigid and discolor; hence, interfere with the ability to read, perception of distance and color. Therefore, older adults will be needed to wear corrective glasses or lens. The hearing starts diminishing, specifically detecting high-pitched sounds, which becomes a problem. Nevertheless, with widely available hearing aids, hearing problems are always corrected. At the same time, in old age, taste remains the same, though elderly persons can have difficulties distinguishing the tastes in the blended foods.
Apart from the dulling of the senses and changes in appearance, the fine motor abilities decrease and reflex slow with the old age. Some adults have been experiencing a slow reduction in how they respond to certain spontaneous events during late adulthood. This is common for older people who have been driving. The reaction times of older people will decline to the extent that they start hazardously operating their vehicles.
Also, on sexuality, aging has been taking its toll. Older women are known for producing less vaginal lubrication and their vagina becoming less stretchable because female hormone levels have reduced. Unlike young men, older men are less able to attain orgasms and erections and reduced testosterone levels because they produce fewer secretions from accessory sex glands. Likewise, older men have little or no urge to ejaculate or have long waiting times before regaining an erection. Furthermore, such changes in their sexual abilities ought not to prevent older adults from enjoying their sex life.
Nevertheless, among the inevitable consequences of aging is intellectual decline. Older adults learn more slowly, in addition to performing less well on tasks that involve memorization and imagination, unlike the younger adults, do, though what older adults can lack in terms of specific mental tasks, they have been making up for in wisdom, or expert and practical knowledge based on their life experience. Moreover, older adults experience memory problems because of sensory storage issues in the short-term instead of the long‐term memory processes. Older adults have much fewer difficulties in recalling places and names from long ago, unlike they do when recalling or acquiring new information.
Furthermore, practice and repetition assist in minimizing the decline of memory and some cognitive functions. Older adults who have been keeping their mind fit and active continue to learn and grow, though somehow slowly that the young adults. On the part of the elderly and their significant others, understanding and patient, memory training, and continuing education are significant for maintaining their quality of life and mental abilities in the later years.
Notably, for all adults and in the old age, death is inevitable. All adults are known for going through physical declines that eventually lead them to death. Though some older adults will remain healthy, some will suffer from terminal diseases like stroke, heart diseases, and cancer. In some, the inability of the body to recuperate can cause death. Moreover, aging, genetic programming theories assume that the DNA genetic coding of the body contains limited time on the cell production within the body; hence, this speeds up the aging process, something that will eventually lead to death. Other theories, such as wear and tear theories, claim that after a certain duration, the body always physically wears out with age because of environmental and situational factors. These factors contribute to the impairment of the body’s ability to function and will later lead to deterioration and, eventually, death. Though these theories suggest that the bodies will decline, but it remains unclear why they deteriorate and die. Moreover, our population’s life expectancy has seen tremendously increased over the past few centuries with differences in gender, race, and ethnicity as factors. Researchers also believed that the individuals’ life span rate is likely to increase because of technological advances in medicine, sanitation, and a balanced diet. The life span of aging adults can also be increased by organ replacement (Feldman, 2017, Pg. 627-37).

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Internationally, almost 60% of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected people have not been tested. Such people are not aware of their serostatus (Krause et al. 735). In different parts of the world, access to testing is still an issue, and fear of discrimination and stigmatization are a threat to HIV testing services’ acceptance. In America, some people with HIV are undiagnosed, and such people can be responsible for about one-half of HIV/AIDs transmissions in the nation (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Consequently, routine and repeated HIV testing or screening are highly recommended for patients in health care centers. Accurately, HIV screening methods are essential since they increase the rates of diagnosis; this can create room for early antiretroviral therapy for the infected individuals’ health and decrease the possibilities of transmissions to susceptible individuals (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Nevertheless, this paper will pay much attention to the argument for self HIV testing, though it will highlight some arguments against the testing.
Self-testing is a familiar concept; it has been essential in diagnosing and managing different health conditions, for instance, diabetes, colon cancer, and pregnancy. HIV self-testing involves the collection of a finger stick blood or saliva sample for analysis by the user. Generally, people complete this kind of testing with no or little training (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). If the testing is unsupervised, cautions and instructions are always provided. From the time it was introduced, HIV self-testing is always subjected to scrutiny by researchers, regulatory agencies, as well as users because of potential social, ethical, and legal issues (Rapid Response Service 1). Nevertheless, some people support it while others are against it.
The argument for HIV Self Test
Among the things that ought to be considered in relation to the HIV self-test are accuracy, acceptability, destigmatization, and empowerment. The rapid HIV self-test is accepted by individuals who are at the highest risk for HIV infections. Moreover, the results of self-tests are trusted and highly accurate.
In relation to the acceptability of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is highly accepted and recommended since it associated with minimal supervision (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The fact that it is not associated with no false-positive results and false-negative results being rare, people consider HIV self-test to be more accurate. The test has also attracted individuals who have never been involved in HIV testing by other means or do not know their serostatus. Among the things that should be considered corresponding to the HIV individual test are exactness, worthiness, destigmatization, and strengthening. The quick HIV individual test is acknowledged by people who are at the most elevated danger for HIV diseases. Additionally, the consequences of individual tests are trusted and profoundly exact.

Comparable to the adequacy of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is exceptionally acknowledged and suggested since it related with negligible management (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The way that it isn’t related with no bogus positive outcomes and bogus antagonistic outcomes being uncommon, individuals believe HIV individual test to be more exact. The test has additionally drawn in people who have never been engaged with HIV testing by different methods or don’t have the foggiest idea about their serostatus.
Apart from accuracy and high acceptability, HIV self-testing is recommended because of the empowerment of people (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). It also reduces stigmatization, in addition to having the ability to test in a private, anonymous, and confidential manner. Discrimination and stigma, in health care settings, are huge barriers to HIV testing because of fear of the patient’s confidentiality being breached and long waiting time to get the result. Self-testing is assumed to be private and highly confidential and participants, who use self-test kits, believe that it can give them, over their health, more power.
Another reason HIV self-testing is highly recommended is that it increases awareness of risks, promotes testing and disclosure, in addition to improving the serosorting’s accuracy (Wood et al. 120). Since self-testing kits are accessible, people’s attitudes and behaviors have changed; this incorporates being aware of the risks, in addition to more discussions of safe-sex practices. Moreover, in instances where a partner tested positive, sexual encounters stopped (Carballo-Die´guez, Frasca, Balan, Ibitoye & Dolezal 1753). This is also the same case for the partners who are not willing to test themselves. In other words, after a positive test, people prefer not to have sexual intercourse, and this suggests that the HIV self-test can cause increased awareness of the possible risks, in addition to averting sex between discordant partners.
The argument against HIV-Self Test
Though there is, around the world, increased availability of HIV self-testing, there are concerns about lack of test counseling and the need for the individuals who have tested positive to be linked to appropriate care. Another issue arising with this is the fact that there are moments confirmatory testing is essential.
In some regions, for instance, New York, where it has been legalized, self HIV-testing remains to be a concern (Wood, Bellenger, & Stekler 121). In pharmacies, there is a possibility that self-test kits are always placed behind the counter. As a result, in high-morbidity areas, interaction with the pharmacy staff is a must. Some pharmacies still sell the kits at prices above the suggested retail price of the manufacturer. So beyond cost and legality, awareness of the self-test kits, together with the access to these kits, remains to be obstacles.
Another significant concern is associated with HIV self-test is false-negative results (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 121). Also, in the window period, the missing infection can be experienced; this is because the early diseases are known for sometimes exhibiting high viral loads, as well as high transmissibility. If people with high and frequent HIV risk behaviors access the self-test, during the window period, a negative test can lead to false reassurance; hence, increasing sexual intercourse (without condom) with the HIV-negative partners. Hence, HIV transmission will be propagated.
Since missed early infections can be experienced, materials accompanying self-test kits can be stressful to the users. The false-negative results’ risk and acute-retroviral syndrome’s signs during the window period has made care providers not to consider replacing the clinical-based testing with self-test. Self-test ought to be a supplement for patients who cannot do screening in health care centers (Paltiel & Walensky 745). If a self-test is used as a supplement screening, the prevalence of HIV is likely to decrease. Moreover, the positive results ought to be confirmed and the adverse effects to be repeated by more sensitive tests.
Unsupervised HIV self-testing is associated with a lack of in-person or formal counseling (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Wood, Ballenger and Stekler believed that some countries do not recommend the use of self-testing because false-negative tests can cause false reassurance. Without in-person counseling, patients will not have the opportunity to discuss the possible risk of prevention with their health care providers. Moreover, the patient will not be in a position to ask sufficient questions. With the HIV self-testing, there are phone counseling services, though they can never be as effective as face-to-face counseling.
In isolation, there is a concern regarding an individual’s psychological reactions when the patent gets a positive result (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). After positive tests, suicidal thinking has become less frequent with the effectiveness and availability of antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, in settings with limited resources, suicidal thinking is likely to occur.
Apart from limited counseling, another disadvantage of HIV self-testing is how the patient can be linked to care (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Individuals who consider self-test because of fear of discrimination or stigma are at a greater risk of avoiding presenting or linking to healthcare for the same reasons. After testing positive, the patients can consider not to call for support.
Further disadvantages to HIV self-testing are associated with resource-limited settings, for instance, issues related to regulations of test developments and sales, storage of tests and self-tests’ quality control. The self-tests also heighten barriers to HIV-related counseling and linkage to patient care that is given to isolation and geographical distances. Moreover, since rapid tests are antibody-based, HIV self-testing has limited utility for infants’ HIV screening (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 123).
HIV self-tests have managed to reach the highest-risk people who have never been screened for HIV. The self-test promotes mutual partner testing and, therefore, averting sex without using condoms between discordant partners. It is also through HIV self-test that stigmatization can be potentially decreased, in addition to assisting in normalizing testing. Nevertheless, several concerns still persist, i.e., access and cost, false reassurance, linkage to care, coercion, limited counseling. Also, during the window period, missed early infections can be experienced.
Proper regulatory, community involvement, legal framework, and correct information can assist in reducing the risks associated with HIV self-test. In spite of the potential social risks, the self-test has made it possible for more individuals to know their status and empower them to consider taking care of their health. As people get to know their HIV status, there will be a demand for effective treatment. Health care systems will also be strengthening to support patients that have tested positive.

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Long-term Care Presentation

Long-term Care Presentation
Funding of long-term care involves analyzing various options to determine the most appropriate and sustainable method. Elderly people can experience diverse health complications that can undermine their health. Selecting the appropriate funding can improve access to quality, timely, and affordable care (Williams, 2017). The selection process depends on the available government programs, personal financial status, and private funding options. Medicaid is one of the options for long-term care funding (Vogel, 2002). The option is affected by various factors such as pressure on increasing healthcare expenditure. The pressure results in a lack of elaborate options to access quality and reliable care. Medicaid restricts access to healthcare services due to eligibility requirements.
Medicaid funding is unlike private funding that has no restrictions. Government funding of long-term care undermines can be restrictive since it may fail to accommodate every patient (Williams, 2017). Private funding is different from government funding since it can expensive and does not limit to healthcare services (Vogel, 2002). Individuals are required to make payments upfront or use their cards to facilitate payment. A majority of Americans rely on government funding, which leads to complications due to congestion.
Family assistance is an option for healthcare funding for long-term care. Family members are vital in taking care of the elderly (Vogel, 2002). Some relatives take in the sick person in their homes and provide care for them. Traditional beliefs in various ethnic groups indicate that taking care of the elderly is a source of blessings. The desire to take care of the elderly is an inherent tradition in society. The family takes care of the simple health issues that do not admission to the hospital. If a disease possesses a severe heath outcome, families can take their elderly people to the elderly care centers. Hospice is one of the options that involve the provision of care to individuals experiencing life-threatening diseases (Williams, 2017). Hospice centers are unlike the government funding option since they have lower costs and easy access.
Long-term care insurance is another option for long-term care funding. Individuals or families can take insurance premiums and start contributing (Ameriks et al., 2020). The insurance will mature or become effective according to the terms and conditions. Individuals have to contribute and be eligible for the service long-term care insurance is expensive compared to government, personal funding, and hospice centers (Vogel, 2002). Individuals should evaluate the options available and select the best according to their financial status. Planning is important to overcome the risk of suffering high financial burdens without prior planning.
Healthcare planning is an essential step to achieving sustainable and affordable care. Long-term care planning requires individuals to select the best available option depending on their financial status. Medicaid is one of the best options for middle and upper-class individuals. The reason is that it requires compliance with the eligibility requirements and a lack of a comprehensive care package. Private insurance packages are expensive and effective since they customize the services they offer to the clients according to their needs. People opt for family-based care when they cannot afford government or private funding. Elderly people can experience diverse health complications that can undermine their health. Selecting the appropriate funding can improve access to quality, timely, and affordable care. Selecting the best will reduce the mortality risks and improve the health of elderly people.

Ameriks, J., Briggs, J., Caplin, A., Shapiro, M. D., & Tonetti, C. (2020). Long-term-care utility and late-in-life saving. Journal of Political Economy, 128(6), 2375-2451.
Vogel, T. M. (2002). Private sector long-term care planning. Elder’s Advisor, 4, 1.
Williams, B. W. (2017). Leap of faith: Managed care and the privatization of Medicaid long-term care services. Loy. Consumer L. Rev., 30, 438.

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Assessment 2 Information
Subject Code: ACCM6000
Subject Name: Capstone: Research Project
Assessment Title Benchmark Video Project
Assessment Type: Individual Recorded Video
Length: 3 minutes (no more)
Weighting: 20%
Total Marks: 100
Submission: Online (Vimeo)
Due Date: Week 5
Your task
Individually, you are required to create a 3-minute video, in which you must benchmark your organization against two competitors and then identify and analyse their differences.
Assessment Description
In this individual assessment, students will be given an opportunity to focus all their previous accounting learning (both theory and practice) to describe and analyse a successful real-world organization and how it differentiates itself from its competitors.
Assessment Instructions
Your instructor will choose your organization.
Assuming the role of the accountant, you are to apply your analytical skills by researching your organisation and benchmark it against two competitors and then identify and analyse their differences.
Findings should be presented in a video which provides an overview in a form and tone that could be presented to the organisations executive team. It should be no more than 3 minutes long that c a n assist the executive team to understand the findings presented. Areas covered should include:
• Introduction.
• A brief overview of the organisation.
• An analysis of the external and internal environment using appropriate theories and frameworks.
• Clear articulation of the differences identified against two other competitors.
• A conclusion that identifies strategic opportunities and risks for your organisation.
Students are also encouraged to explore and utilise features of webinar technologies and to include a wide range of multimedia and/or interactive content that is appropriate for a video presentation to an executive team.
You are required to use multiple sources of information and reference these in accordance with the Kaplan Harvard
Referencing Style. These may include websites, government publications, industry reports, census data, journal articles, and newspaper articles. These references should be presented as a reference list at the end of your video.
Assessment Submission
Students are encouraged to submit their work well in advance of the deadline to avoid any possible technical difficulties. For those students who have limited experience in video making techniques, it is recommended to read video FAQs document that is available to you under the assessments tab in MyKBS.
Late assignment submission penalties
Penalties will be imposed on late assignment submissions in accordance with Kaplan Business School “late assignment submission penalties” Policy.
Number of days Penalty
1* – 9 days 5% per day for each calendar day late deducted from the total marks available
10 – 14 days 50% deducted from the total marks available.
After 14 days Assignments that are submitted more than 14 calendar days after the due date will not be accepted, and the student will receive a mark of zero for the assignment(s).
Note Notwithstanding the above penalty rules, assignments will also be given a mark of zero if they are submitted after assignments haveb een returned to students
*Assignments submitted at any stage within the first 24 hours after the deadline will be considered to be one day late and therefore subject to the associated penalty
For more information, please read the full Policy via
Important Study Information
Academic Integrity Policy
KBS values academic integrity. All students must understand the meaning and consequences of cheating, plagiarism and other academic offences under the Academic Integrity and Conduct Policy.
What is academic integrity and misconduct? What are the penalties for academic misconduct? What are the late penalties?
How can I appeal my grade?
Click here for answers to these questions:
Time Limits for Video Assessments
Submissions that exceed the time limit by more than 10% will cease to be marked from the point at which that limit is exceeded.
Study Assistance
Students may seek study assistance from their local Academic Learning Advisor or refer to the resources on the MyKBS Academic Success Centre page. Click here for this information.
ACCM6000 Capstone Assessment 2 Marking Rubric – Benchmark Video Project 20%
Criteria ( /100) F (Fail)
0 –
49% P (Pass) 50 – 64% C (Credit) 65 – 74% D (Distinction) 75 – 84% HD (High Distinction) 85 100%
/10 marks Provides poor context and does not link to the assessment in a clear and coherent way. May be missing entirely. Provides satisfactory context but links to the assessment in only a partially clear and coherent way. Provides reasonable context and links to the assessment in a clear and coherent way. Provides solid context and links to the assessment in a clear and coherent way. Provides excellent context and links to the assessment in an extremely clear and coherent way.
/10 marks
Analysis of
External and
/15 marks Overview is poorly presented, not thorough and does not identify sufficient pertinent issues. Overview is satisfactorily present but not very thorough and only identifies a few of the pertinent issues. Overview is well presented, reasonably thorough and identifies some of the most pertinent issues. Overview is very well presented, very thorough and identifies most of the pertinent issues. Overview is excellently presented, extremely thorough and identifies all the pertinent issues.
Poor evaluation of environment that superficially describes and poorly identifies context. Answer is not substantiated by strategy frameworks. Satisfactory evaluation of environment that describes and identifies context. Answer has limited substantiation using strategy frameworks. Good evaluation of environment that partially analyses and partially identifies context. Answer is partially substantiated by strategy frameworks. Very good evaluation of environment that fully analyses and clearly identifies context. Answer is predominantly substantiated by strategy frameworks. Excellent evaluation of environment that logically analyses and thoroughly identifies context. Answer is fully substantiated by strategy frameworks.
Outline of differences between
companies benchmarked
/35 marks Benchmarking is discussed using no or minimal key theories to frame an answer that is incoherent and does not
link to the source material. Benchmarking is discussed using a small number of key theories to frame an answer in a relatively coherent way that partially links to an explanation of current sources. Benchmarking is discussed using some key theories to frame an answer in a clear way that links to the explanation of current sources. Benchmarking is discussed using most key theories to frame an answer in a coherent way that links clearly to the explanation of current sources. Benchmarking is discussed using all key theories to frame an answer in an extremely coherent way that links seamlessly to the explanation of current sources.
/20 marks Conclusion is poorly evaluated, poorly analysed, and poorly applied with respect to the organisation in question. Conclusion is reasonably well evaluated, reasonably well analysed, and reasonably well applied with respect to the Conclusion is well evaluated, well analysed, and well applied with respect to the organisation in question. It is partially Conclusion is very well evaluated, very well analysed, and very well applied with respect to the organisation in question. It is mainly substantiated by theory and Conclusion is excellently evaluated, skilfully analysed, and thoughtfully applied with respect to the organisation in question. It is fully substantiated by theory and
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This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of Kaplan Business School pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (‘Act’). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Kaplan Business School is a part of Kaplan Inc., a leading global provider of educational services. Kaplan Business School Pty Ltd ABN 86 098 181 947 is a registered higher education provider CRICOS Provider Code 02426B.
Demonstrates little or no theory and research. organisation in question. It is inconsistently substantiated by theory and research. substantiated by theory and research. research. research.
Video Format
/5 marks The format chosen for your video is inappropriate and/or lacks thought and consideration for the intended audience. The format chosen for your video is appropriate, but further attention to detail would improve its presentation. The format chosen for your video is appropriate, but minor changes would enhance its presentation. Your video is professionally presented and has been submitted in the appropriate format. Your video is professionally presented and exceeds expectations for what is suitable for a business environment.
In-text referencing and reference list.
/5 marks Neither in-text referencing and/or reference list adheres to Kaplan Harvard Referencing Style. In-text referencing or the resultant reference list adheres to Kaplan Harvard Referencing Style, with some errors. Both, in-text referencing and the resultant reference list adhere to Kaplan Harvard Referencing Style, with some minor errors. Both, in-text referencing and the resultant reference list adhere to Kaplan Harvard Referencing Style, with only occasional minor errors. Both, in-text referencing and the resultant reference list adhere strictly to Kaplan Harvard Referencing Style, with no errors.
Feedback and grades will be released via MyKBS.
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of Kaplan Business School pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (‘Act’). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Kaplan Business School is a part of Kaplan Inc., a leading global provider of educational services. Kaplan Business School Pty Ltd ABN 86 098 181 947 is a registered higher education provider CRICOS Provider Code 02426B.

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BSBINM601 Manage knowledge and information
Answer questions from Bounce Fitness case study
The assessment has been divided into four tasks:
• Task 1: Obtain information relevant to business issues.
• Task 2: Analyze information and knowledge.
• Task 3: Take Decisions on business issues identified.
• Task 4: Disseminate information to the organization.
Submit a completed report by responding all four tasks in Word format.
(You must use Assessment relevant documents- Bounce Fitness) for preparation of this report.
You must provide references at the end of your tasks. No Referencing = Not Satisfactory
Task 1: Obtain information relevant to business issues.
Submit: Develop a report by including the followings:
(You are required to read the Assessment relevant documents (Bounce Fitness) and respond to the questions (Q1 to Q3) below in the context of that case study.)
1. Identify, define and analyze the business objective, problems and issues. Identify what information you will require to provide to the CEO and Board of Directors to allow them to make a decision.
2. Investigate the information on the Fitness Australia website. How do you know that the information you are gathering is reliable?
3. Check the information and ensure that the information you select to use is not contradictory or ambiguous. How will you obtain reliable and other information not held in formal networks from Centers?
Task 2: Analyze information and knowledge.
Submit: Add the following information (answer Q4 to Q7) in your report.
4. Provide a description of the patterns or trends emerging by using a recently published report from Fitness Australia and provide your discussion (which should include the analysis of the statistics featured as part of your interpretation) on the selected relevant trends that may affect Bounce Fitness.
5. Based on Q4, discuss how the emerging trends in a ‘what if analysis’ and how it would impact Bounce Fitness?
6. How you have ensured that your analysis has been conducted using a logical approach to the evaluation and conclusions you have drawn?
7. What are the provisions for a contingency plan if there is a need to adjust any information collection systems currently in place? Briefly discuss on the recommendations to improve on information collection.
Task 3: Take Decisions on business issues identified.
Submit: Add the following information (answer Q8 to Q11) in your report
8. How do you know that you have sufficient information to make valid, credible and reliable recommendations to the CEO and Board of Directors and that it is valid and reliable? Document your recommendations including the use of an information system to capture future information relevant to this project.
9. Determine acceptable courses of action by following the risk management plans you have put in place.
10. Provide your decision by following the quantitative methods and discuss why it is essential to consult with specialist to assist decision making
11. Ensured decisions taken on Bounce Fitness’ information management are in accordance to meeting the organizational objectives, values and standards consistently; delegation/ accountability of the individual/ group responsible; in accordance with organizational guidelines and procedures, and; ensuring the appropriate implementation timeline and justification
Task 4: Disseminate information to the organization.
Submit: Complete your report by adding the following information (answer Q12 to Q14)
12. Discuss any factors, which may affect Bounce Fitness’ Information Management including relevant legislation.
13. Develop a communications plan for Bounce Fitness and discuss how you would include periodic updates on this plan
14. Explain why it is important to design and test systems to meet information requirements of Bounce Fitness

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