History summary of the Book “A Pocket Guide to Writing in History.”
A Pocket Guide to Writing is a brief guide that offers guidelines on the best writing and research skills necessary for undergraduate history courses. Mary Lynn Rampolla writes the book. It comprehensively covers all steps of the research and writing process, including elaborate advice on avoiding plagiarism. The book is subdivided into three chapters covering a broader range of topics making it compact enough to be tuck into a pocket. The eighth edition provides fundamental guidance on the tested skill of “doing history.” It reflects on the emerging aspects of history pedagogy and offers advice on the impact of technology in writing and researching in history. The author was encouraged by his colleagues at Trinity Washington University.
Chapter one offers a reflection on the importance of studying history and how to use historical evidence. The chapter records that studying history tells us how we to be and who we are.
It also looks at the origins of modern institutions, allows people to see the world from different angles and perspectives. Moreover, studying history helps individuals make informed decisions regarding the future by comprehending the complexities of the past have shaped the world.
The second chapter focuses on identifying and categorizing sources and the use of those categories. It is noted that sources fall into two categories, which include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources entail the materials produced directly by individuals on the topic of discussion. On the other hand, secondary sources consist of books and films produced by people who are not historians, journalists or writers. Primary sources enable one to enter the lives of those people he or she is studying. Seconar3y sources provide a broader perspective of past events and allow a person to use them in context.
Finally, the third chapter provides the best approaches to typical assignments. It guides reading strategies. The reading strategies provided includes pre-reading the text to get a sense of the article, determining the author’s thesis to absorb the text more effectively, reading with the thesis in mind, critiquing the article and reviewing what you have written

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Part A
Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson theorized middle adulthood as the stage of Generativity – Versus – Stagnation as the in middle adulthood in which individuals consider their contributions to their society, family, community and work (Feldman 2017 pg. 585). According to Erick, this psychosocial stage of development occurs during middle adulthood (between 40 – 65 years of age). Through mentoring or parenting, people strive to provide guidance and encouragement to their future generations during the generativity stage. They can choose to contribute to other people’s lives in positive ways. Moreover, the generativity stage suggests that people will try to make a mark on the world by caring for other people and creating and doing things that make the world a better place to live. Nevertheless, stagnation refers to a person’s failure to contribute, and consequently, such a person disconnects or gets uninvolved with the community or society. Several individuals who go through the Generativity Versus Stagnation stage can successfully have a sense of accomplishment towards their contribution to their society or community.
Nevertheless, in development, Erick Erickson considers Ego Integrity Versus Despair Stage to be the final stage. In this stage, according to Feldman (2017, pg. 655), the human being is known for looking back over his life, evaluating it, in addition to coming to terms with it. This stage has been taking place in late adulthood, which starts at 65 until death; people can be paying attention to evaluating their contribution and accomplishment and impacts they have made to community, society and comes into agreement with facing the end. Hence, ego integrity is successfully achieved. Though several adults can look back and develop a sense of regret with their lives, such adults can feel that they could not accomplish what they work for or missed out on opportunities. Consequently, these adults are likely to become angry, depressed or unhappy. Therefore, if the adults do not become successful at this stage, they can become victims of despair.
Consequently, a positive or negative outcome can be brought about by occurrence. As an attempt to accomplish each development stage before time, many people go social challenges; hence, making it difficult for them to have positive relationships with other people. For some people, these challenges have been leading to negative outcomes. Nevertheless, in the generativity stage, a positive outcome can emerge when society’s social aspects are understood and managed. While ego integrity versus despair stage, failure to achieve goals will make an individual view late adulthood negatively, they can face challenges fitting into society; hence, in late adulthood, a lot of care is needed. Thus, a positive or adverse result can be achieved by event. As an endeavor to achieve every improvement stage before time, numerous individuals go social difficulties; consequently, making it hard for them to have positive associations with others. For certain individuals, these difficulties have been prompting adverse results. By the by, in the generativity stage, a positive result can arise when society’s social angles are perceived and overseen. While sense of self honesty versus despair stage, inability to accomplish objectives will make an individual view late adulthood adversely, they can confront difficulties finding a way into society; subsequently, in late adulthood, a ton of care is required.
Part B
During late adulthood, human beings have been undergoing both cognitive and physical changes, which affect their quality of life and lastly lead them to death. Nevertheless, motor abilities, physical appearance, and sensation are profoundly affected in late adulthood. The formation of wrinkles starts, and the skin starts becoming thin and less elastic. Beneath the surface of the skin, the small blood vessels break. Moreover, the age spots form on the body. As melanin decreases, hair turns gray and thin. Since the bone density decreases, the height of an individual lessens by an inch or two. The aging’s double standard applies to men and women into older adulthood, like how it was in middle adulthood. Older men can still best distinguish, as older women are being referred to over the hill, and past the prime of life.
As the senses start to become dull, with age, the eyes’ lenses become rigid and discolor; hence, interfere with the ability to read, perception of distance and color. Therefore, older adults will be needed to wear corrective glasses or lens. The hearing starts diminishing, specifically detecting high-pitched sounds, which becomes a problem. Nevertheless, with widely available hearing aids, hearing problems are always corrected. At the same time, in old age, taste remains the same, though elderly persons can have difficulties distinguishing the tastes in the blended foods.
Apart from the dulling of the senses and changes in appearance, the fine motor abilities decrease and reflex slow with the old age. Some adults have been experiencing a slow reduction in how they respond to certain spontaneous events during late adulthood. This is common for older people who have been driving. The reaction times of older people will decline to the extent that they start hazardously operating their vehicles.
Also, on sexuality, aging has been taking its toll. Older women are known for producing less vaginal lubrication and their vagina becoming less stretchable because female hormone levels have reduced. Unlike young men, older men are less able to attain orgasms and erections and reduced testosterone levels because they produce fewer secretions from accessory sex glands. Likewise, older men have little or no urge to ejaculate or have long waiting times before regaining an erection. Furthermore, such changes in their sexual abilities ought not to prevent older adults from enjoying their sex life.
Nevertheless, among the inevitable consequences of aging is intellectual decline. Older adults learn more slowly, in addition to performing less well on tasks that involve memorization and imagination, unlike the younger adults, do, though what older adults can lack in terms of specific mental tasks, they have been making up for in wisdom, or expert and practical knowledge based on their life experience. Moreover, older adults experience memory problems because of sensory storage issues in the short-term instead of the long‐term memory processes. Older adults have much fewer difficulties in recalling places and names from long ago, unlike they do when recalling or acquiring new information.
Furthermore, practice and repetition assist in minimizing the decline of memory and some cognitive functions. Older adults who have been keeping their mind fit and active continue to learn and grow, though somehow slowly that the young adults. On the part of the elderly and their significant others, understanding and patient, memory training, and continuing education are significant for maintaining their quality of life and mental abilities in the later years.
Notably, for all adults and in the old age, death is inevitable. All adults are known for going through physical declines that eventually lead them to death. Though some older adults will remain healthy, some will suffer from terminal diseases like stroke, heart diseases, and cancer. In some, the inability of the body to recuperate can cause death. Moreover, aging, genetic programming theories assume that the DNA genetic coding of the body contains limited time on the cell production within the body; hence, this speeds up the aging process, something that will eventually lead to death. Other theories, such as wear and tear theories, claim that after a certain duration, the body always physically wears out with age because of environmental and situational factors. These factors contribute to the impairment of the body’s ability to function and will later lead to deterioration and, eventually, death. Though these theories suggest that the bodies will decline, but it remains unclear why they deteriorate and die. Moreover, our population’s life expectancy has seen tremendously increased over the past few centuries with differences in gender, race, and ethnicity as factors. Researchers also believed that the individuals’ life span rate is likely to increase because of technological advances in medicine, sanitation, and a balanced diet. The life span of aging adults can also be increased by organ replacement (Feldman, 2017, Pg. 627-37).

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Internationally, almost 60% of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected people have not been tested. Such people are not aware of their serostatus (Krause et al. 735). In different parts of the world, access to testing is still an issue, and fear of discrimination and stigmatization are a threat to HIV testing services’ acceptance. In America, some people with HIV are undiagnosed, and such people can be responsible for about one-half of HIV/AIDs transmissions in the nation (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Consequently, routine and repeated HIV testing or screening are highly recommended for patients in health care centers. Accurately, HIV screening methods are essential since they increase the rates of diagnosis; this can create room for early antiretroviral therapy for the infected individuals’ health and decrease the possibilities of transmissions to susceptible individuals (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Nevertheless, this paper will pay much attention to the argument for self HIV testing, though it will highlight some arguments against the testing.
Self-testing is a familiar concept; it has been essential in diagnosing and managing different health conditions, for instance, diabetes, colon cancer, and pregnancy. HIV self-testing involves the collection of a finger stick blood or saliva sample for analysis by the user. Generally, people complete this kind of testing with no or little training (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). If the testing is unsupervised, cautions and instructions are always provided. From the time it was introduced, HIV self-testing is always subjected to scrutiny by researchers, regulatory agencies, as well as users because of potential social, ethical, and legal issues (Rapid Response Service 1). Nevertheless, some people support it while others are against it.
The argument for HIV Self Test
Among the things that ought to be considered in relation to the HIV self-test are accuracy, acceptability, destigmatization, and empowerment. The rapid HIV self-test is accepted by individuals who are at the highest risk for HIV infections. Moreover, the results of self-tests are trusted and highly accurate.
In relation to the acceptability of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is highly accepted and recommended since it associated with minimal supervision (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The fact that it is not associated with no false-positive results and false-negative results being rare, people consider HIV self-test to be more accurate. The test has also attracted individuals who have never been involved in HIV testing by other means or do not know their serostatus. Among the things that should be considered corresponding to the HIV individual test are exactness, worthiness, destigmatization, and strengthening. The quick HIV individual test is acknowledged by people who are at the most elevated danger for HIV diseases. Additionally, the consequences of individual tests are trusted and profoundly exact.

Comparable to the adequacy of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is exceptionally acknowledged and suggested since it related with negligible management (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The way that it isn’t related with no bogus positive outcomes and bogus antagonistic outcomes being uncommon, individuals believe HIV individual test to be more exact. The test has additionally drawn in people who have never been engaged with HIV testing by different methods or don’t have the foggiest idea about their serostatus.
Apart from accuracy and high acceptability, HIV self-testing is recommended because of the empowerment of people (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). It also reduces stigmatization, in addition to having the ability to test in a private, anonymous, and confidential manner. Discrimination and stigma, in health care settings, are huge barriers to HIV testing because of fear of the patient’s confidentiality being breached and long waiting time to get the result. Self-testing is assumed to be private and highly confidential and participants, who use self-test kits, believe that it can give them, over their health, more power.
Another reason HIV self-testing is highly recommended is that it increases awareness of risks, promotes testing and disclosure, in addition to improving the serosorting’s accuracy (Wood et al. 120). Since self-testing kits are accessible, people’s attitudes and behaviors have changed; this incorporates being aware of the risks, in addition to more discussions of safe-sex practices. Moreover, in instances where a partner tested positive, sexual encounters stopped (Carballo-Die´guez, Frasca, Balan, Ibitoye & Dolezal 1753). This is also the same case for the partners who are not willing to test themselves. In other words, after a positive test, people prefer not to have sexual intercourse, and this suggests that the HIV self-test can cause increased awareness of the possible risks, in addition to averting sex between discordant partners.
The argument against HIV-Self Test
Though there is, around the world, increased availability of HIV self-testing, there are concerns about lack of test counseling and the need for the individuals who have tested positive to be linked to appropriate care. Another issue arising with this is the fact that there are moments confirmatory testing is essential.
In some regions, for instance, New York, where it has been legalized, self HIV-testing remains to be a concern (Wood, Bellenger, & Stekler 121). In pharmacies, there is a possibility that self-test kits are always placed behind the counter. As a result, in high-morbidity areas, interaction with the pharmacy staff is a must. Some pharmacies still sell the kits at prices above the suggested retail price of the manufacturer. So beyond cost and legality, awareness of the self-test kits, together with the access to these kits, remains to be obstacles.
Another significant concern is associated with HIV self-test is false-negative results (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 121). Also, in the window period, the missing infection can be experienced; this is because the early diseases are known for sometimes exhibiting high viral loads, as well as high transmissibility. If people with high and frequent HIV risk behaviors access the self-test, during the window period, a negative test can lead to false reassurance; hence, increasing sexual intercourse (without condom) with the HIV-negative partners. Hence, HIV transmission will be propagated.
Since missed early infections can be experienced, materials accompanying self-test kits can be stressful to the users. The false-negative results’ risk and acute-retroviral syndrome’s signs during the window period has made care providers not to consider replacing the clinical-based testing with self-test. Self-test ought to be a supplement for patients who cannot do screening in health care centers (Paltiel & Walensky 745). If a self-test is used as a supplement screening, the prevalence of HIV is likely to decrease. Moreover, the positive results ought to be confirmed and the adverse effects to be repeated by more sensitive tests.
Unsupervised HIV self-testing is associated with a lack of in-person or formal counseling (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Wood, Ballenger and Stekler believed that some countries do not recommend the use of self-testing because false-negative tests can cause false reassurance. Without in-person counseling, patients will not have the opportunity to discuss the possible risk of prevention with their health care providers. Moreover, the patient will not be in a position to ask sufficient questions. With the HIV self-testing, there are phone counseling services, though they can never be as effective as face-to-face counseling.
In isolation, there is a concern regarding an individual’s psychological reactions when the patent gets a positive result (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). After positive tests, suicidal thinking has become less frequent with the effectiveness and availability of antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, in settings with limited resources, suicidal thinking is likely to occur.
Apart from limited counseling, another disadvantage of HIV self-testing is how the patient can be linked to care (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Individuals who consider self-test because of fear of discrimination or stigma are at a greater risk of avoiding presenting or linking to healthcare for the same reasons. After testing positive, the patients can consider not to call for support.
Further disadvantages to HIV self-testing are associated with resource-limited settings, for instance, issues related to regulations of test developments and sales, storage of tests and self-tests’ quality control. The self-tests also heighten barriers to HIV-related counseling and linkage to patient care that is given to isolation and geographical distances. Moreover, since rapid tests are antibody-based, HIV self-testing has limited utility for infants’ HIV screening (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 123).
Conclusion
HIV self-tests have managed to reach the highest-risk people who have never been screened for HIV. The self-test promotes mutual partner testing and, therefore, averting sex without using condoms between discordant partners. It is also through HIV self-test that stigmatization can be potentially decreased, in addition to assisting in normalizing testing. Nevertheless, several concerns still persist, i.e., access and cost, false reassurance, linkage to care, coercion, limited counseling. Also, during the window period, missed early infections can be experienced.
Proper regulatory, community involvement, legal framework, and correct information can assist in reducing the risks associated with HIV self-test. In spite of the potential social risks, the self-test has made it possible for more individuals to know their status and empower them to consider taking care of their health. As people get to know their HIV status, there will be a demand for effective treatment. Health care systems will also be strengthening to support patients that have tested positive.

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