Defining Health

The World Health Organization defines health as the state of complete mental, physical, and social wellbeing and not the absence of infirmity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention endorse the definition by showing that the complete wellbeing of a person defines their health (Brook, 2017). Past definitions would indicate that health is a state of being free from disease and illness. The improved definition is critical since it examines the wellbeing of a person in three dimensions including physical, mental, and social wellbeing. Healthcare workers have a responsibility to examine the health of an individual in different dimensions (Brook, 2017). A comprehensive patient examination is vital in assessing the healthcare factors that could contribute to poor health. Due to the improved definition of health, practitioners have to utilize different interventions apart from medication to promote health.
The resources necessary to provide quality healthcare in a population involve all the materials needed to provide healthcare services. The resources include all the materials, funds, and personnel that are vital in the provision of healthcare services. The materials include the medication and the tools necessary for the provision of care (Healthy People, 2021). Healthcare facilities should be equipped with the materials for diagnostic testing and provision of care. It is important to diagnose patients accurately using the appropriate tools. Another set of resources is the personnel (Healthy People, 2021). The personnel includes the nurses, managers, physicians, psychiatrists, and midwives. The different categories of nurses are important for bedside care, follow-up clinic, and prescription of medication. Lack of sufficient distribution of personnel across the healthcare network undermines the health of patients (Lacasa et al., 2020). For instance, the healthcare sector has been facing a shortage of personnel leading to long shifts for the available practitioners.
Funds are important resources in the provision of care across the world. The allocation of funds for research purposes enhances the ability to discover new medications or practices (Lacasa et al., 2020). Healthcare workers need to utilize evidence-based practices to ensure the accuracy of treatment and diagnosis. Hospitals use funds to allocate appropriate salaries for the healthcare workers and other support staff. It is important to motivate the healthcare workers by compensating them appropriately (Cancio et al., 2019). Governments utilize policies to allocate practitioners and provide medication to healthcare facilities.
The resources available in my community are healthcare workers. Community healthcare workers are present in the surrounding healthcare facilities. Some of their major roles in diagnosis and treatment (Cancio et al., 2019). During the pandemic, the healthcare workers have been vital in addressing the issues surrounding the treatment and diagnosis. Another important role in educating the patients on the need to change lifestyles to ensure quality healthcare outcomes. The practitioners are equipped with the tools for diagnosing different diseases and providing appropriate interventions (Lacasa et al., 2020). The nurses and physicians utilize evidence-based practice interventions to ensure they provide quality care to the patients.
Conclusion
Past definitions would indicate that health is a state of being free from disease and illness. The improved definition is critical since it examines the wellbeing of a person in three dimensions including physical, mental, and social wellbeing. The resources include all the materials, funds, and personnel that are vital in the provision of healthcare services. Healthcare facilities have a responsibility to utilize the resources to promote quality healthcare outcomes. It is important to ensure equitable distribution of the resources in the healthcare sector to eliminate the risk of inequalities that lead to negative outcomes.
References
Brook, R. H. (2017). Should the Definition of Health Include a Measure of Tolerance?. Jama, 317(6), 585-586.
Cancio, J. M., Vela, E., Santaeugènia, S., Clèries, M., Inzitari, M., & Ruiz, D. (2019). Long-term impact of hip fracture on the use of healthcare resources: a population-based study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 20(4), 456-461.
Healthy People (2021). Healthy People 2020. ODPHP. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-of-Health
Lacasa, L., Challen, R., Brooks-Pollock, E., & Danon, L. (2020). A flexible method for optimising sharing of healthcare resources and demand in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Plos One, 15(10), e0241027.

Posted in Uncategorized

More about:


HI5004
MARKETING MANAGEMENT
SUPPLEMENTARY ASSESSMENT
Trimester 1, 2021
TIME ALLOWED: 4.5 hours
All answers must be submitted within this time frame. Late submissions are not accepted.
Assessment Weight: 50 total marks
Instructions:
• All questions must be answered by using the answer boxes provided in this paper.
• Completed answers must be submitted to Blackboard by the published due date and time.
Submission instructions are at the end of this paper.
Purpose:
This assessment consists of six (6) questions and is designed to assess your level of knowledge of the key topics covered in this unit

Note. References are not mandatory for this assessment. However, please follow the Adaptive Harvard Referencing guidelines at the end of this paper if you use any reference(s) to explain any concept or theory.
Question 1 (11 marks)
You have been hired to develop a marketing plan for a small solicitor (lawyer) in your local town. Discuss the 4 segmentation bases that may be used, and then recommend a target market for your solicitor. Students should combine their discussion with theories provided in lectures (300 words)
ANSWER: ** Answer box will enlarge as you type
Question 2 (11 marks)
Consider the attributes of price, quality, availability, and promotion. Provide your justification for the best combination of these four attributes in brand positioning. (300 words)
ANSWER:
Question 3 (7 marks)
A US health food store, Best Healthy Foods, has stores in over 100 countries, selling health food in a supermarket format. Their management are considering Australia as a potential market for their health food stores. As the marketing manager for Best Healthy Foods, you have begun your research into the Australian market.
You have identified families with children who are interested in health foods in the major cities as your target market.
Discuss how the economic and technological macro environments (external environment) may impact the marketing strategies you choose to implement. Give specific examples related to your discussion
(300 words total)
ANSWER:
Question 4 (7 marks)
Discuss each of the five stages in the consumer decision making process when purchasing a gold necklace for a close female relative who is in her late 50s. You should combine your discussion with theories provided in the lectures. (250 words)
ANSWER:
Question 5 (7 marks)
Discuss what and how personal factors influence consumer behavior. Provide an example of how age affects a consumer’s taste in products to support your discussion. (300 words)
ANSWER:
Question 6 (7 marks)
Social Media is rarely used as the only source for brand communications. Identify and explain in detail at least three reasons why. (300 words)
ANSWER:
END OF SUPPLEMENTARY ASSESSMENT
Submission instructions:
• Save submission with your STUDENT ID NUMBER and UNIT CODE e.g. EMV5897 HI5004
• Submission must be in MICROSOFT WORD FORMAT ONLY
• Upload your submission to the appropriate link on Blackboard
• Only one submission is accepted. Please ensure your submission is the correct document.
• All submissions are automatically passed through SafeAssign to assess academic integrity.
Reference requirements
Assessment Design – Adapted Harvard Referencing
Holmes will be implementing as a pilot program a revised Harvard approach to referencing. The following guidelines apply:
1. Reference sources in assignments are limited to sources which provide full text access to the source’s content for lecturers and markers.
2. The Reference list should be located on a separate page at the end of the essay and titled: References.
3. It should include the details of all the in-text citations, arranged alphabetically A-Z by author surname. In addition, it MUST include a hyperlink to the full text of the cited reference source.
For example;
P Hawking, B McCarthy, A Stein (2004), Second Wave ERP Education, Journal of Information Systems Education, Fall, http://jise.org/Volume15/n3/JISEv15n3p327.pdf
4. All assignments will require additional in-text reference details which will consist of the surname of the author/authors or name of the authoring body, year of publication, page number of content, paragraph where the content can be found.
For example;
“The company decided to implement a enterprise wide data warehouse business intelligence strategies (Hawking et al, 2004, p3(4)).”

Non Adherence to Referencing Guidelines
Where students do not follow the above guidelines:
1. Students who submit assignments which do not comply with the guidelines will be asked to resubmit their assignments.
2. Late penalties will apply, as per the Student Handbook each day, after the student/s have been notified of the resubmission requirements.
3. Students who comply with guidelines and the citations are “fake” will be reported for academic misconduct.

Posted in Uncategorized

Law, Policing & Forensics
Session: 2020/2021
Semester: 01
Module Code: LAWS40501
Module Title: TORT LAW & CIVIL REMEDIES
Credits:
30 Credits (50% Weighting)
Due Date:
6th August 2021
Due Time:
5.00pm
Examiners: J. Beswick
G. De Silva
H. Widanapathirana
Word Limit: Maximum word limit of 2500 words
There is only one question. Issues contained in the extended problem case study must be addressed.
There is only one percentage grade available for this examination.
Answer to be submitted online as per the instructions given.
The University/ Department reserves the to right to change exam conditions unilaterally at its sole discretion, after giving appropriate notice to students.
Please note that this question is subject to the approval of the external examiner.
This scenario is set pre Covid-19 pandemic.
Northern Trains owned and operated by Arriva North Ltd. operates both passenger and cargo trains across Northern England. One morning, a passenger train driven by Alec, who had been employed as a train driver by Arriva North Ltd. crashed onto the back of a stationary goods train also owned and operated by Arriva North Ltd. As a result, the following incidents had occurred.
[a] Claire and Teesha, university students who take the train commute daily had been passengers in Alec’s train. Claire had sustained an open fracture to her right leg. She is taken to the hospital and required immediate surgery to fix the fracture and close the wound. At the hospital, she develops a serious infection that requires medication to be administered intravenously. Due to the infection she had to be hospitalised for an extended period which resulted her missing the final examinations. After presenting the required medical certificates she has been allowed to sit at the next available exams, but the exam attempt costs £125.
[b] Teesha, has suffered injuries to her back, which has aggravated her preexisting back problem. Upon being discharged from the hospital she has been instructed not to engage in strenuous activities for 3 months. Despite the medical advice she continued her work as a gym instructor at the University Gym and started complaining of serious pains. After medical examination it transpired that she had sustained permanent injuries to her back.
[c] Eesha, who knew her twin sister Teesha takes the train daily suffers a psychiatric breakdown upon seeing images of the accident on a special news broadcast, and because she feared for Teesha’s safety, Eesha is now suffering from a clinical depression.
[d] During the accident, a coach from the passenger train rolled down an embankment and damaged Freddy’s meat shop. The meat shop had to be closed for a month while being repaired, resulting in a loss of income to Freddy. Also, the meat in the freezers had to be disposed of as Freddy was unable to keep the shop open until the conclusion of the repairs.
Discuss the potential liability of Arriva North Ltd.
END OF EXAMINATION

Posted in Uncategorized

FNS50315 MODULE 2 ASSESSMENT

Part 3 – Learning Activities and Assignments

for
FNS50315 Diploma of Finance and Mortgage Broking Management
PART 3 – ASSESSMENTS FOR MODULE 2 OF FULL DIPLOMA COURSE
I N D E X
Summary of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………3
How to Submit your Assessment Tasks…………………………………………………………………………5
Frequently Asked Questions………………………………………………………………………………………..5
ASSIGNMENT 1 of 5 – LOAN SUBMISSION [20 Marks]…………………………………………………..11
ASSIGNMENT 2 of 5 – LOAN SUBMISSION for EQUIPMENT FINANCE [20 Marks]……………..15
ASSIGNMENT 3 of 5 – THEORY ASSESSMENT [30 Marks]………………………………………………21
ASSIGNMENT 4 of 5 – SERVICING AND RESEARCH ASSESSMENT [30 Marks]……………………25
ASSIGNMENT 5 of 5 – SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING ASSESSMENT [30 Marks]…………………..33
Mandatory Feedback Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………………..35
PART 3 – ASSESSMENTS FOR MODULE 2 OF FULL DIPLOMA COURSE
Summary of Contents
This section consists of the following assessment tasks:
A. Part 1 Learning Activity questions (90 marks) – if not already provided to you please email support@financeinstitute.com.au to obtain the link to complete this task online
B. Part 2 Learning Activity questions (60 marks) – if not already provided to you please email support@financeinstitute.com.au to obtain the link to complete this task online
C. Assignment 1 – CASE STUDY 1 – You are required to complete 1 submission to a
lender on behalf of these clients (20 marks)
D. Assignment 2 – CASE STUDY 2 – You are required to complete 2 submissions for
these equipment finance clients (20 marks)
E. Assignment 3 – THEORY ASSIGNMENT – This is an open book, multiple-question assignment on some of the topics studied within this course (30 marks)
F. Assignment 4 – SERVICING AND RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT – You are required to use what you have learned and your research skills to obtain information necessary to understand the complex requirements and risks when providing broking services to clients with complex loan needs (30 marks)
G. Assignment 5 – SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING Business Plan – You are required to use the information provided in Part 1 along with research on the internet or in Appendix to prepare a Sustainability Business Plan (30 marks) H. Compulsory Education Department Feedback form
All items above are required by NFI
Total possible marks = 280. To reach a Competent status for this Diploma qualification, trainees need to achieve 80% for each of the A. and B. Learning Activity online questions and 80% for each of the 5 assignments.
Instructions –
Instructions help you understand the questions and complete the assignment.
Questions/Scenario –
There may be one or more questions relating to the competencies you are required to demonstrate.
Trainees must ensure that the Cover Sheet provided is included with the full completed 5 Assignment submission (ie. use the provided cover sheet as the front page to your 5 assignments and submit together).
The Assessment process for Module 2 of the Full Diploma is comprised of online questions + 5 assignments. You are required to complete the online questions then submit the remaining 5 assignments together.
Please note, extensive answers are not always required. Brief answers may be appropriate for some questions as long as you ensure your response adequately addresses the question.
IMPORTANT: Presenting your Assessment submission in a format that is clear and appropriately structured forms part of your assessment and also demonstrates your ability to communicate ideas and concepts and use technology.
After NFI has reviewed your Learning Activity question answers and your 5 Assignments have been marked, your marks will be advised put into the online platform.
All Assessments tasks should be submitted together ie. at the same time, either by mail or email or by uploading into the online platform.
Your completed assessments will NOT be returned to you as they are retained for audit purposes as required.
The assessment tasks will also be used to assess your language and literacy skills. The assessor will check your assignments to ensure
? that they are accurate with correct grammar and punctuation
? that they are appropriate to the target audience
? that they show planning and organisational skill
? that they demonstrate your ability to search for products and service information and use problem solving approaches to identify customer needs and expectations.
TIME LIMITS – You have 12 months in which to complete all of your course assessments for both Module 1 and Module 2 of this course. You may submit your assessments at any time within this period. Extensions are only available after this time for an additional fee. If your 12 months expires you will no longer have online access available.
PASS MARK – The assessments above together form the full assessment content of this Diploma course and you are required to achieve 80% on each assessment task in order to pass the course.
KEEP A COPY – With all assessments submitted you should ensure you retain an electronic or scanned or photocopied record of your submissions for your own files and in case of possible loss in transit.
How to Submit your Assessment Tasks
HOW TO SUBMIT YOUR ASSESSMENTS – There are three options for submitting your written assessments as below. Please ensure a Cover Sheet is included.
Option 1 – Mail
The National Finance Institute
P.O. Box 1354
Capalaba Business Centre Qld 4157
Option 2 – Email
Email your work to assessments@financeinstitute.com.au
Option 3 – Upload
If you have access to the online portal where you complete your learning activity questions, then you have the option to upload assignments in this same portal.
————————————————————–
To contact NFI:
Phone: 1300 765 400
Email: enquiries@financeinstitute.com.au
Frequently Asked Questions
Q. Can I send my assessments through as I do them?
A. You should complete your online questions through the online platform then submit all of your other assessments together at the one time. From both Module 1 and Module 2.
Q. Is there an attachment file size limit for emailing?
A. Yes, if you are scanning your assessments you need to scan in black & white to keep the file size small. All of your assessment tasks should be sent in one email, not multiple emails. Total maximum attachment file size is 10Mb by email or 8Mb by upload.
Q. How should I name my assessments?
A. It is important that you name every file name with your own name and what it contains.
An example is below. You must adhere to this process. Example:
Vivien Xiao FNS50315 Diploma course Assignments.doc
Q. What if I can’t get my file sizes small enough?
A. You will need to print and mail your assessments if you cannot reduce the file size to within the 10Mb size limit.
Q. How long before I receive my results?
A. Please allow up to 3 weeks for marking of your assessments.
Q. Can I get faster marking?
A. Marking will be completed as soon as possible and is dependent on the quantity of marking we have at any one time. In most cases, your assessments will be marked in less than 2 weeks but please allow up to 3 weeks as a maximum. We also offer an Express Marking option for a fee which will reduce marking time down to 3 business days. Please phone 1300 765 400 if Express Marking is required.
Q. What if I don’t pass one of my assessments?
A. You will be allowed an additional 2 attempts to complete each assessment if you do not pass the first time. We will email to let you know if you do not pass first time and will provide you with detailed feedback to assist with your resubmission. You will then have 21 days to resubmit.
Q. How long do I have to resubmit a failed assessment task?
A. You have 21 days only in which to re-submit your assessment
Q. Once I pass, how can I get my certificate?
A. Once your assessments have each reached a minimum of 80% your certificate will go in line to be produced within 1 to 2 weeks of your pass. Your certificate and transcript will be sent by regular mail.
Q. My letterbox is small, will my certificate be okay?
A. We stamp our mailing envelopes with “please do not bend”. If you do not receive your certificate within the above guidelines and have not heard from us, please check your local post office in case your envelope is being held there. It is Australia Post policy that if the postman considers your envelope may be damaged from inserting into your letterbox, then they may hold at the local post office for collection by you.
Q. I have changed my address since I first enrolled, what should I do?
A. Please let us know your new mailing address as soon as you are aware of it so that we can ensure our mail will reach you. If you do not advise us of your change of address, your certificate will need to be reissued at a fee of $29.95 and may take an additional 3 weeks.
Q. My friend has done these assignments and I have used my friend’s calculations, is this okay?
A. To avoid us recording your work as a plagiarised submission, you must ensure that your assignments are 100% your own work. NFI procedures are in place to determine if copying has occurred and using another person’s submission as your own is not acceptable.

LEARNING ACTIVITY QUESTIONS

ASSESSMENT A and B
Part 1 and Part 2
Learning Activity Questions
Learning Activity Questions
These questions form part of your final marks
Please complete online at http://financeinstitute.ecampusv2.com.au/
HOW TO ACCESS YOUR QUESTIONS:
Workshop trainees: your trainer will provide you with instructions and the link
Distance learning trainees: please refer to the email you received upon enrolment which included your enrolment key
Online learning trainees: please refer to the email you received upon enrolment which included your enrolment key
Please contact NFI if you have any difficulties
Ph 1300 765 400 or support@financeinstitute.com.au
Your assignment cover sheet follows overleaf.
This cover sheet is also provided in the online platform as an interactive document if you prefer to type your cover sheet.
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET FNS50315 FULL DIPLOMA
I declare that the attached material is all my own work, that it is free of plagiarism and that all sources have been properly acknowledged.
Signed ___________________________________________ Date _______________________
My method of enrolment in this course was:
PLEASE ENSURE YOU TICK ONE OF THE 3 BOXES BELOW
• – I attended a face-to-face workshop in …………………………………………………… (city) on ……………………………….. (date).
• – I enrolled as a distance learning student and received my course material by mail
• – I enrolled as an online e-learning student and completed my course online
Trainee NAME:
POSTAL Address:
Postcode
Phone (home) Phone (work)
Fax Phone (mobile)
Email address
Preferred method of contact
THIS PAGE FOR NFI OFFICE USE ONLY
This page for NFI OFFICE USE ONLY Trainee name: ___________________________
Name of Assessor: _____________________________________
Date Assessment received: _____________________________________
Trainer’s comments:

ASSIGNMENT 1

ASSIGNMENT 1 of 5
– LOAN SUBMISSION [20 Marks]
Overview The purpose of this task is to allow you to demonstrate that you can complete the major steps required in broking or writing a moderately complex loan for a customer – through identification, development and implementation of loan options while assessing and managing risks. The samples in Appendix a) and b) will prove helpful. Remember that what you prepare would, in the real world, need to be presented to the client orally and thus must be understood by them.
INSTRUCTIONS Read the scenario provided and using the information and data supplied, prepare a formal loan submission for a lender using the following headings. Use subheadings where appropriate to ensure your submission will be easily read and understood by the lender.
The client file should contain the standard client information and data that would be included in a typical submission for a loan of this complexity. Your lender submission should include as a minimum the following headings:
1. Borrower’s Details
2. Background
3. Loan Purpose
4. Facility Details
5. Funds Position
6. Servicing Capacity
7. Security
8. Risk Assessment and Management (according to lender policy, guidelines and relevant legislation). Consideration must be given to any environmental, heritage or native title implications
9. Recommendations
10. List of Attachments*
* Attachments which would normally be included in a submission to a lender need only be listed for the purpose of this assignment. You will not need to create “dummy” supporting documents.
SCENARIO
Applicant’s
Information Andrew Bisset has been a real estate agent for over 20 years and jointly with his wife Jane own 6 shops at 55 Park Road, Belmont. Mr and Mrs Bisset own the shopping centre under the Bisset Family Trust. The property was valued 2 years ago at $1,450,000 and has a current ABZ Bank Mortgage of $625,000.
Five of the shops are rented out for $96,000. The sixth shop is occupied by Mr Bisset’s real estate business, Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd, which pays annual rental of $42,000 to the family trust. For tax purposes Bisset’s Real Estate pays rent which is $20,000 in excess of the fair market rental value of the shop it occupies.
Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd was formed at the beginning of the last financial year to take over the real estate agency business, which was previously conducted by a partnership between Mr Bisset and Joseph Hooper. Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd took over the business when Mr Hooper retired and Andrew Bisset is the sole director of Bisset’s Real Estate Pty
Ltd.
Mr and Mrs Bisset now wish to acquire 3,000m2 of land near their existing shopping centre and hold it for 1 – 2 years pending rezoning. The purchase price is $600,000. The land was previously used as a State Government Health and Dental Centre, but the building was demolished when it became obsolete. The land is currently zoned ‘Special Purpose’, but the local council earmarked the land for future ‘Commercial’ use in it recently released Town Planning Scheme. The land is located at 423 Belmont Road, Belmont and has a two street frontage with considerable passing traffic.
The Bissets have contracted to purchase the property in their capacity as trustees of their family trust and settlement is due with 60 days. They wish to raise 100% of the purchase price plus $25,000 for stamp duty, financing and conveyancing costs. They are willing to offer both the land and their existing shopping centre as security for the proposed loan. They will contribute a further $20,000 over the next 1-2 years to cover the costs associated with re-zoning of the property and obtaining approval to develop another shopping centre.
Unfortunately ABZ Bank policy does not allow them to lend against land zoned ‘Special Purpose’ and cannot assist with the purchase. The Bissets have appointed you to approach an alternative lender to refinance their ABZ Bank Loan and obtain the additional funds required.
Assume an interest rate of 7% for a commercial loan, 9% for an overdraft.
Andrew Mark Bisset – DOB 29/07 1965 DL # 2945758
Jane Elizabeth Bisset – DOB 15/06 1967 DL # 2786454
Married with three adult children (one working in the real estate business)
Address: 12 Currumbin Close, Carindale QLD 4152
Accountant – Ainslie and Partners Telephone – 07 3349 9999
Work History
Financial
Information Andrew has been a real estate agent for 22 years in the Brisbane South East area, he specialises in commercial and industrial property (rent roll comprises 75% commercial and industrial properties). His gross salary last financial year was $78,000. In the previous financial year he drew $55,000 from the partnership with Joseph Hooper.
Jane has worked as the property manager since Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd took over the agency after the partnership. Her salary last financial year was $43,000. She did not work in the previous financial year.
Last Financial year Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd recorded the following financial results:
Gross Revenue $346,000
Net Profit $ 72,000
Depreciation $ 14,000
Director Superannuation $ 11,000
In the previous financial year the partnership of Andrew Bisset and Joseph Hooper trading as Bisset’s Real Estate recorded the following financial results:
Gross Revenue $422,000
Net Profit $ 84,000
Depreciation $ 16,000
Director Superannuation $ 11,000
The Bisset Family Trust purchased the shopping centre at Park Road Belmont 18 months ago and its financial statements for the past financial year are as follows:
Gross Rental Income $138,000
Loan Interest $ 52,000
Management Fees $ 11,000 (paid to Bisset’s RE Pty Ltd)
Net Profit $ 50,000
Depreciation $ 25,00
Financial Position – Andrew and Jane Bisset
ASSETS
House at 12 Currumbin Close Carindale QLD 0
$560,000
Share Portfolio (Blues Chip Listed Shares) $345,000
Motor Vehicles $ 60,000
Furniture $ 85,000
Cash at Bank $ 45,000
LIABILITIES
Home Loan with ABZ Bank $190,000
ABZ Bank Credit Card (Limit $20,000) $ 10,000
Financial Position of Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd
ASSETS
Business Goodwill $250,000
Plant & Equipment $ 35,000
Debtors $ 30,000
LIABILITIES
ABZ Bank Overdraft (limit $40,000 secured by residence) $25,000
(Keep in mind that, in the absence of actual tax returns which would confirm the income distribution of the trust, any profit would be distributed and taxed in the hands of the beneficiaries. For the purposes of this assignment, assume company tax of 27.5%, even though in -real life- of course you cannot assume and the
distributions would be clear in “real life” financials.)
Property being purchased
Vacant Land
423 Belmont Road, Belmont QLD 4171
Lot 84 on RP 9564
Zoning “Special Purpose”
Area 3000m2
Existing Property
Shopping Centre
55 Park Road, Belmont QLD 4171
Lot 43 on RP 9542
Zoning “Commercial”
Area 1850m2
Tenancies

Tenant Rent Term Rent Review
J & R Blend
T/A Blend News $22,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI
Copelin Accounting Pty Ltd $18,000 pa net 1 + 1 + 1 years Annually by CPI
R Spragos
T/A Roger’s Deli $28,000 pa net 5 + 5 years Annually by CPI
Vu Nguyen
T/A Care Pharmacy $20,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI
M Goodson
T/A Good Alterations $8,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI
Bisset’s Real Estate Pty Ltd $42,000 pa net 3 + 3 years Annually by CPI
ASSIGNMENT 2

ASSIGNMENT 2 of 5
– LOAN SUBMISSION for EQUIPMENT FINANCE [20 Marks]
INSTRUCTIONS The assessment for this module is to prepare TWO submissions (see A and B below):
Part A: This first submission is for the client so that they have the facts on all their obligations and fees and the structure of the loan. Remember that what you prepare would, in the real world, need to be presented to the client orally and thus must be understood by them.
Part B: This second submission is for the lender – a loan application to the lender in order to gain pre-approval.
PART A – THE CLIENT
1. Prepare a list of questions that you would need to ask your clients about the proposed transaction, that is, prepare your needs analysis (ie. Fact Find).
2. In a suitable format, prepare a submission for the clients ie. a Proposal document.
What your client submission should include:
1. The parties to the loan
2. The security
3. The facility details
4. Lender details (options, recommendations) that are able to lend
5. Confirmation of the client’s complex requirements
6. The personnel that may be involved: eg. the client’s solicitor, accountant, financial advisor
7. The client’s responsibilities, so the client fully understands the loan
8. An outline as to the process timing and what the client needs to arrange
9. The documentation needed to commence the borrowing
10. The name in which the client will sign the contract to purchase
11. A summary of all fees and charges
12. Your notes detailing how you have provided appropriate contact with the client throughout the complex broking process
The samples in Appendix a) and b) will assist.
PART B – THE LENDER
Prepare a loan submission to the lender for pre-approval.
Your submission should include as a minimum the following headings:
1. Borrower’s Details
2. Background
3. Loan Purpose
4. Facility Details
5. Funds Position
6. Servicing Capacity
7. Security
8. Risk Assessment and Management (according to lender policy, guidelines and relevant legislation). Consideration must be given to any environmental, heritage or native title implications
9. Recommendations
10. List of Attachments*
* Attachments which would normally be included in a submission to a lender need only be listed for the purpose of this assignment. You will not need to create “dummy” supporting documents.
EVIDENCE
REQUIREMENTS In order to be deemed competent, you will need to evidence the ability to:
• Develop detailed broking options designed to maximise the client’s outcomes and reach client objectives which incorporate elements from research and which address complex needs and issues
• Identify and describe key assumptions upon which the plan is based
• Provide a detailed analysis of research strategies and findings
• Test and make appropriate checks on a proposed plan for its integrity and compliance
• Assess the impacts of taxation, social security, economic and other government policies on client investment and financial requirements
• Interpret and comply with industry regulations and codes of practice
• Identify the roles of associated financial advisers and work effectively with them
• Assess broking options, financial markets and investment characteristics
• Use appropriate sales and marketing methodologies and provide justification and research evidence
• Gain client feedback on and/or agreement to the plan
• Prepare materials and personnel to effectively implement complex loan structures
• Establish appropriate audit trails and effectively document records and data.
SCENARIO Commercial Equipment Finance for Ray Henley and Steve Manning
The clients you met with this morning have been referred to you by another commercial client.
They are joint company owners Ray Henley and Steve Manning and they run a successful and growing transport company. They have a diverse client base spread over many industry sectors which is a conscious management strategy to ensure that they do not have significant business risk to a specific market segment or client. All contracts are written with 30 day payment terms. Background industry checks as well as credit history checks are completed on all new business prospects to ensure that there are no adverse issues that may impact on future trading arrangements.
Whilst they have only been trading for 34 months they have a solid business plan with actual results to date exceeding projected sales and profit estimates included in their plan.
The business was established with unsecured (apart from Personal Guarantees) Seed Capital of $500k from a private investor based on a guaranteed return of $45k pa, and an overall term of 5 years which also requires a principal reduction of $100k pa. The loan can be repaid at any time without penalty.
Ray and Steve’s Requirements
To accommodate new contracts in hand and planned future expansion, the applicants require establishment of an Equipment Finance Limit of $500k to purchase Trucks and Dog Trailers in the next 12 months. On the advice of their accountant, a new entity, Henman Holdings Pty Ltd ATF The Henman Discretionary Trust, has been established to purchase equipment which will be internally hired to Henman Transport Pty Ltd (the trading entity). Hire charges will equate to finance payments. Ray and Steve are directors of both companies. The longer term intention is for the Trust to acquire premises to be occupied by Henman Transport Pty Ltd.
As part of this expansion the company has leased a second depot at a cost of $6,000pm and will also retain the existing depot.
They currently have 5 employees and where needed are using sub-contract operators to fill shortfall in their delivery capacity. Purchase of new additional trucks and trailers will provide additional capacity and flexibility and reduce reliance on sub-contractors who can be unreliable.
Whilst a limit is being sought, purchases will only proceed where additional work has been contracted or older equipment is being replaced. Applicants are happy to provide half yearly management accounts as an approval covenant to give a lender comfort that projected sales and profits are in line with budgets.
Applicants are keen to reduce debt as quickly as possible and have therefore decided to finance all new equipment over a 48 month term, without a balloon/residual and will commit a refund of GST Input Credits as additional repayments built into the contracted loan structure.
Initial Fact Find Ray and Steve have both been in the transport industry for many years each being Financial Controllers for major transport companies. Ray has an MBA and Steve a marketing degree. These combined skills complement each other and assist in the effective management of the business. Ray is married and has no dependants. His wife is a school teacher and she will be retiring at the end of the year.
Steve is single and is presently completing a HR degree as they feel that as the business grows these skills will be required.
Steve and Ray have provided the last two year’s financial accounts for the trading business, as well as interim accounts for the current financial year.
(Note: You need to calculate the required servicing for the new debt and surplus required for lender comfort. Assume an interest rate of 10% for the proposed debt)
Financial accounts
? Year 1- Sales $700k Net Profit $240,000
? Year 2- Sales $812k Net Profit $358,000
? Current year interim indication- Sales $1.125m Net Profit $506,000 (10 months); Operating Costs include – Depreciation $86,000, Interest $52,000, Sub-contractors $71,000, Directors’ Superannuation $60,000
? Wages to partner one $100,000 (paid as Fully Franked Dividend)
? Wages to partner two $100,000 (paid as Fully Franked Dividend)
? Payment to private investor (flat fee) $45,000- Expensed in P&L as Finance Cost
? Existing Equipment Finance (Chattel Mortgages) repayments of $5,000pm
Applicant
Information
Key Balance
Sheet Items ? Ray Henley net income $100,000 (paid as fully franked dividend), owner occupied property $850,000 with debt of $250,000 (assume 7.2% P&I), credit card limit $25,000 (with debt of $15,000, assume at 3.8%), contents $100,000, superannuation $550,000, motor vehicle $40,000 with nil debt.
? Steve Manning – net income $100,000 (paid as Fully Franked Dividend), owner occupied property $500,000 with debt of $350,000 (assume 7.2% P&I), credit card limit $10,000 (with debt of $3,000, assume at 3.8%), contents $85,000, superannuation $150,000, motor vehicle $25,000 with debt of $15,000 (assume five year debt at 9%).
? Cash in business account $25,000.
Cash $25,000
Debtors $220,000
Creditors $100,000
Notes:
They currently meet all creditor payments at 30-day terms.
Debtor collection has been solid with active management of debtors and pre-contract investigation of new clients.
They have just signed a delivery contract with Organic Flower Growers who supply to Coles Supermarkets state-wide. To accommodate this work their initial purchase will be a refrigerated Pantec truck at a cost of $145,000. Projected net profit from this contract is $60k pa.
P.T.O. for additional Tips on this assignment.
TIPS
1. In this Assignment 2, your submission can be either:
a) Consolidation of all income and debt in assessing servicing capacity OR
b) Separate residential and commercial calculations.
2. Presentation – Although in real life you may well present the client part of this assignment in person to the client/verbally, for the purposes of this assignment please present your submission in a written report format. Remember to include Part A, the list of questions that you would need to ask your clients about the proposed transaction, that is, prepare your needs analysis/Fact Find. Then make use of Appendix a) and b) for guidance on layout.
Note that Appendix b) has key content points on page 3.
3. Risk management is the forecasting and evaluation of financial risks together with the identification of procedures to avoid or minimize their impact. If you take a look at Ray and Steve’s requirements and the -fact find- area in the scenario, this will assist you in providing possible risks and the relevant information to mitigate these risks, for example strong servicing, short loan term with no balloon, etc.
4. Funds Position – As explained in Appendix b), the Funds Position should include a calculation of required funds including purchase price and costs to ensure that borrowings and equity are sufficient to complete the transaction. The clients are potentially buying equipment costing $500,000 and it would be reasonable to say 100% borrowing requested. Brokerage is payable by the lender and included in the loan repayments to them so there is no additional cost in relation to brokerage.
5. Loan Repayments – If the loan is $500,000 and you calculate the P&I repayment amount of $21.25 (showing under the 5 Years column in the Monthly Repayment Calculator table in Appendix m), you would get a monthly repayment figure of $10,625 per month. However the scenario in this Assignment 2 is based around a 4 year term not a 5 year term so your calculation of the repayment amount would be a higher figure per month. If preferred, you may also, or instead, source and utilise an online Chattel Mortgage repayment calculator.
6. Servicing Capacity – You can assume that the lender will allow you to use three addbacks: Depreciation, Interest and the full amount of Directors’ superannuation (because they are paying themselves in the form of fully franked dividends, not salary). Remember also to use the rate of 27.5% when you work out the taxation on income. So simplistically you will have income less tax, then add back the addbacks, take away their commitments and you’ll be left with the servicing surplus and the DSCR.
7. Security – Security in the way of a mortgage over the homes of the Directors could be taken but it is probably unnecessary in this case. The more likely security would comprise of the Goods (trucks and trailer), the Directors’ Guarantees and the GSA from Henman Transport Pty Ltd.

ASSIGNMENT 3

ASSIGNMENT 3 of 5
– THEORY ASSESSMENT [30 Marks]
– 5 marks for each question
When responding to the following questions you are to describe the processes and resources used in each situation. Please provide evidence of any templates, organisational material or technology used and/or provided to the client in each situation. All references to written material or websites used must be provided (simple format).
Question # Question Detail
1. Describe how you gather the information required when establishing the client’s complex lending requirements?
In answering this question you should refer to:
• Explanation of the services provided to the client
• Listening and questioning techniques you employ
• Your use of language appropriate to any cultural differences
• Your interpersonal skills and how you would deal with any emotive issues sensitively
• Your ability to build/establish rapport
• Your professionalism
• Your communication skills
• Your provision of appropriate contact with client throughout the complex broking process
2. Describe how you record and document your interaction with clients?
In answering this question you must refer to:
• Templates used to gather information in initial interview
• Diarising or recording telephone conversations
• Procedures that are established for critical implementation, timing and priorities
• The documentation gathered
• Any technology used to record or gather information.
• How you access and use appropriate specialist software, organisational templates, spreadsheets and databases
• How your recommendations and loan structures, as presented to clients, are documented according to organisation guidelines and procedures
3. Describe how you research and consider complex broking solutions based on the clients’ needs?
In answering this question you must refer to:
• How special or complex features of a client’s situation and objectives are discussed, reviewed and clarified
• The analysis of the client situation to determine opportunities and constraints
• Research into loan structures or options including those which are new or non-standard
• Consideration of financial issues in terms of economic, legislation, taxation, legal, insurance
• In what conditions would the broker need to refer clients to a Tier One advisor (eg. financial advisor or accountant)
• How possible loan structure or options are analysed, modeled, prioritised and measured
• The process used to reject inappropriate options including checks to ensure compliance with relevant Acts
• Assessment of options to successfully achieve the client’s objectives
• How you liaise with others, share information, listen and understand.
4. Describe and/or provide evidence of how you identify and manage risk when dealing with clients with complex loan requirements?
In answering this question you must consider:
• Risk evaluation criteria eg. undertaking risk categorisation and determining the level of risk
• Risk assessment tools (eg. valuation practices)
• Communication of the aspects of the valuation result/s to clients
• Discussion on the issues around an adverse valuation
• Establishment of the probability of risk including the severity and/or impact
• Identification of stakeholders and how throughout the loan process o you seek their views o provide pertinent risk information – clearly describe risks o recommend amendments to existing controls and report any need for new controls
• How would you as a professional in the industry ensure that you comply with industry and government requirements and professional codes of practice?
• How would you read and interpret organisational and industry information?
5. Provide an example of how you present the loan options to the client, including an explanation of why you chose that option or options. This also must state the name of the lender and an explanation of why you chose that lender.
In answering this question you must consider: how you guide the client through options including:
• Discussion of impact – advantages, disadvantages, risks and financial implications
• Fees charges and commissions inclusive of any fees paid by the lender directly to the broker
• How would you explain to the client the lender conditions as they comply with relevant legislation, regulatory guidelines, industry sector compliance requirements and the lenders policy
• Research and documentation provided to the client
• Consultation required with other financial services professionals
(eg. accountants, lawyers, financial planners, valuers, etc.)
• Confirmation that the client understands the options presented and any concerns are addressed
• Providing information on complaints resolution procedures (internal and external) as included in the information provided to the client.
6. Prior to presenting the loan options to the client did you identify any concerns that the client may raise? What preparation was completed to respond to these concerns?
Consider:
• Research/documentation materials
• Alternative recommendations
• Regulatory limits and financier guidelines
In your answer you should also refer to your ability to:
• Identify and respond appropriately to client concerns
• Exercise restraint when dealing with clients in conflict situations
• The process used to gain agreement to proceed from the client.

ASSIGNMENT 4

ASSIGNMENT 4 of 5
– SERVICING AND RESEARCH ASSESSMENT [30 Marks]
– 5 marks for each question
Question 1
In this exercise we are analysing some financial statements in preparation for completing a submission to a financier. The scenario is provided below and an income statement and balance sheet is then provided for Wholesale Butchers.
You will then have 3 tasks to complete – A, B and C below. TIP: You may wish to reference the INT Services Practice Activity which you completed in Part 1 of the course learning guide:
A. Using the 2 financial statements provided for Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd, calculate the ratios in the table provided and comment as to the risk using Low/Medium/High rating:
B. Complete the manual Serviceability Analysis for Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd by inserting the figures into the table provided
C. List your comments on the outcome from your completed Serviceability Analysis as you would if presenting this in a submission to a lender.
Scenario:
Mr Brett Olsen has owned his wholesale butcher company “Wholesale Butchers” for the past four years. He is the sole director and shareholder of the company. The past six months has seen an influx in orders and, to keep up with demand, he requires another refrigerated van in order to maintain delivery standards and turnaround times to his respective buyers.
Mr Olsen wants to purchase a secondhand van, 1 year old, from RV Dealers for $55,000 and is considering a 5 year Chattel Mortgage (CM), with an interest rate of 9% and monthly repayments of $1,133.21. He has opted not to provide a deposit and is not seeking any balloon at the end of the loan term. As no deposit is to be applied, repayments will be monthly in advance.
Mr Olsen’s only business debts are an overdraft with CBA with a limit of $25,000 and current balance of $2,800 at 9% and his CM with 6% loan with Esanda for his existing refrigerated van, with monthly repayments of $1,058 pm and 2 years remaining.
His financials for the financial years ending 2018 and 2019 are provided here for your
perusal and assessment (only $ are shown in financials, not cents, so there is some rounding in totals).
Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd
Income Statement For the financial year ending 30 June 2019
2018 2019
$ $
Sales 485,000 509,250
Cost of Goods Sold 291,000 305,550
Gross Profit 194,000 203,700
Operating Expenses Advertising 1,250 1,300
Amortisation 500 500
Depreciation 9,000 7,650
Interest 4,372 3,735
Office Equipment 1,000 1,100
Rent 29,100 30,555
Salaries (Directors) 32,000 35,000
Stationery 800 925
Utilities 25,000 26,000
Vehicle Expenses 9,700 10,185
Wages/Staff 48,500 50,925
Total Operating Expenses 161,222 167,875
Net Profit 32,778 35,825
Wholesale Butchers Pty Ltd
Balance Sheet For the financial year ending 30 June 2019
2018 2019
ASSETS $ $
Current Assets Cash 22,945 25,078
Receivables 4,042 4,244
Stock on Hand (inventory) 5,596 5,876
Total Current Assets 32,582 35,197
Non-Current Assets Plant and equipment 24,000 21,600
Vehicles 35,000 29,750
Other Non-Current Assets 2,348 2,574
Intangibles (Formation Costs) 6,250 5,750
Total Non-Current Assets 67,598 59,674
Total Assets
LIABILITIES 100,180 94,871
Current Liabilities Creditors 11,192 11,752
Overdraft CBA (Limit $25,000) 3,600 2,800
CM Esanda Current Portion ($1058×12) 12,696 12,696
Provisions Employees 4,042 4,244
Other 598 637
Total Current Liabilities 32,128 32,129
Non-Current Liabilities CM Esanda Long Term Portion 22,256 11,295
Total Liabilities Total Non-Current Liabilities 22,256 11,295
and Provisions 54,384 43,424
NET ASSETS (Owners’ Equity or Shareholders’ funds) 45,796 51,448
NB. Notes to the balance sheet and income statement have been omitted for this exercise however must be provided with every loan submission.

Posted in Uncategorized

History summary of the Book “A Pocket Guide to Writing in History.”
A Pocket Guide to Writing is a brief guide that offers guidelines on the best writing and research skills necessary for undergraduate history courses. Mary Lynn Rampolla writes the book. It comprehensively covers all steps of the research and writing process, including elaborate advice on avoiding plagiarism. The book is subdivided into three chapters covering a broader range of topics making it compact enough to be tuck into a pocket. The eighth edition provides fundamental guidance on the tested skill of “doing history.” It reflects on the emerging aspects of history pedagogy and offers advice on the impact of technology in writing and researching in history. The author was encouraged by his colleagues at Trinity Washington University.
Chapter one offers a reflection on the importance of studying history and how to use historical evidence. The chapter records that studying history tells us how we to be and who we are.
It also looks at the origins of modern institutions, allows people to see the world from different angles and perspectives. Moreover, studying history helps individuals make informed decisions regarding the future by comprehending the complexities of the past have shaped the world.
The second chapter focuses on identifying and categorizing sources and the use of those categories. It is noted that sources fall into two categories, which include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources entail the materials produced directly by individuals on the topic of discussion. On the other hand, secondary sources consist of books and films produced by people who are not historians, journalists or writers. Primary sources enable one to enter the lives of those people he or she is studying. Seconar3y sources provide a broader perspective of past events and allow a person to use them in context.
Finally, the third chapter provides the best approaches to typical assignments. It guides reading strategies. The reading strategies provided includes pre-reading the text to get a sense of the article, determining the author’s thesis to absorb the text more effectively, reading with the thesis in mind, critiquing the article and reviewing what you have written

Posted in Uncategorized

Part A
Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson theorized middle adulthood as the stage of Generativity – Versus – Stagnation as the in middle adulthood in which individuals consider their contributions to their society, family, community and work (Feldman 2017 pg. 585). According to Erick, this psychosocial stage of development occurs during middle adulthood (between 40 – 65 years of age). Through mentoring or parenting, people strive to provide guidance and encouragement to their future generations during the generativity stage. They can choose to contribute to other people’s lives in positive ways. Moreover, the generativity stage suggests that people will try to make a mark on the world by caring for other people and creating and doing things that make the world a better place to live. Nevertheless, stagnation refers to a person’s failure to contribute, and consequently, such a person disconnects or gets uninvolved with the community or society. Several individuals who go through the Generativity Versus Stagnation stage can successfully have a sense of accomplishment towards their contribution to their society or community.
Nevertheless, in development, Erick Erickson considers Ego Integrity Versus Despair Stage to be the final stage. In this stage, according to Feldman (2017, pg. 655), the human being is known for looking back over his life, evaluating it, in addition to coming to terms with it. This stage has been taking place in late adulthood, which starts at 65 until death; people can be paying attention to evaluating their contribution and accomplishment and impacts they have made to community, society and comes into agreement with facing the end. Hence, ego integrity is successfully achieved. Though several adults can look back and develop a sense of regret with their lives, such adults can feel that they could not accomplish what they work for or missed out on opportunities. Consequently, these adults are likely to become angry, depressed or unhappy. Therefore, if the adults do not become successful at this stage, they can become victims of despair.
Consequently, a positive or negative outcome can be brought about by occurrence. As an attempt to accomplish each development stage before time, many people go social challenges; hence, making it difficult for them to have positive relationships with other people. For some people, these challenges have been leading to negative outcomes. Nevertheless, in the generativity stage, a positive outcome can emerge when society’s social aspects are understood and managed. While ego integrity versus despair stage, failure to achieve goals will make an individual view late adulthood negatively, they can face challenges fitting into society; hence, in late adulthood, a lot of care is needed. Thus, a positive or adverse result can be achieved by event. As an endeavor to achieve every improvement stage before time, numerous individuals go social difficulties; consequently, making it hard for them to have positive associations with others. For certain individuals, these difficulties have been prompting adverse results. By the by, in the generativity stage, a positive result can arise when society’s social angles are perceived and overseen. While sense of self honesty versus despair stage, inability to accomplish objectives will make an individual view late adulthood adversely, they can confront difficulties finding a way into society; subsequently, in late adulthood, a ton of care is required.
Part B
During late adulthood, human beings have been undergoing both cognitive and physical changes, which affect their quality of life and lastly lead them to death. Nevertheless, motor abilities, physical appearance, and sensation are profoundly affected in late adulthood. The formation of wrinkles starts, and the skin starts becoming thin and less elastic. Beneath the surface of the skin, the small blood vessels break. Moreover, the age spots form on the body. As melanin decreases, hair turns gray and thin. Since the bone density decreases, the height of an individual lessens by an inch or two. The aging’s double standard applies to men and women into older adulthood, like how it was in middle adulthood. Older men can still best distinguish, as older women are being referred to over the hill, and past the prime of life.
As the senses start to become dull, with age, the eyes’ lenses become rigid and discolor; hence, interfere with the ability to read, perception of distance and color. Therefore, older adults will be needed to wear corrective glasses or lens. The hearing starts diminishing, specifically detecting high-pitched sounds, which becomes a problem. Nevertheless, with widely available hearing aids, hearing problems are always corrected. At the same time, in old age, taste remains the same, though elderly persons can have difficulties distinguishing the tastes in the blended foods.
Apart from the dulling of the senses and changes in appearance, the fine motor abilities decrease and reflex slow with the old age. Some adults have been experiencing a slow reduction in how they respond to certain spontaneous events during late adulthood. This is common for older people who have been driving. The reaction times of older people will decline to the extent that they start hazardously operating their vehicles.
Also, on sexuality, aging has been taking its toll. Older women are known for producing less vaginal lubrication and their vagina becoming less stretchable because female hormone levels have reduced. Unlike young men, older men are less able to attain orgasms and erections and reduced testosterone levels because they produce fewer secretions from accessory sex glands. Likewise, older men have little or no urge to ejaculate or have long waiting times before regaining an erection. Furthermore, such changes in their sexual abilities ought not to prevent older adults from enjoying their sex life.
Nevertheless, among the inevitable consequences of aging is intellectual decline. Older adults learn more slowly, in addition to performing less well on tasks that involve memorization and imagination, unlike the younger adults, do, though what older adults can lack in terms of specific mental tasks, they have been making up for in wisdom, or expert and practical knowledge based on their life experience. Moreover, older adults experience memory problems because of sensory storage issues in the short-term instead of the long‐term memory processes. Older adults have much fewer difficulties in recalling places and names from long ago, unlike they do when recalling or acquiring new information.
Furthermore, practice and repetition assist in minimizing the decline of memory and some cognitive functions. Older adults who have been keeping their mind fit and active continue to learn and grow, though somehow slowly that the young adults. On the part of the elderly and their significant others, understanding and patient, memory training, and continuing education are significant for maintaining their quality of life and mental abilities in the later years.
Notably, for all adults and in the old age, death is inevitable. All adults are known for going through physical declines that eventually lead them to death. Though some older adults will remain healthy, some will suffer from terminal diseases like stroke, heart diseases, and cancer. In some, the inability of the body to recuperate can cause death. Moreover, aging, genetic programming theories assume that the DNA genetic coding of the body contains limited time on the cell production within the body; hence, this speeds up the aging process, something that will eventually lead to death. Other theories, such as wear and tear theories, claim that after a certain duration, the body always physically wears out with age because of environmental and situational factors. These factors contribute to the impairment of the body’s ability to function and will later lead to deterioration and, eventually, death. Though these theories suggest that the bodies will decline, but it remains unclear why they deteriorate and die. Moreover, our population’s life expectancy has seen tremendously increased over the past few centuries with differences in gender, race, and ethnicity as factors. Researchers also believed that the individuals’ life span rate is likely to increase because of technological advances in medicine, sanitation, and a balanced diet. The life span of aging adults can also be increased by organ replacement (Feldman, 2017, Pg. 627-37).

Posted in Uncategorized

Internationally, almost 60% of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected people have not been tested. Such people are not aware of their serostatus (Krause et al. 735). In different parts of the world, access to testing is still an issue, and fear of discrimination and stigmatization are a threat to HIV testing services’ acceptance. In America, some people with HIV are undiagnosed, and such people can be responsible for about one-half of HIV/AIDs transmissions in the nation (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Consequently, routine and repeated HIV testing or screening are highly recommended for patients in health care centers. Accurately, HIV screening methods are essential since they increase the rates of diagnosis; this can create room for early antiretroviral therapy for the infected individuals’ health and decrease the possibilities of transmissions to susceptible individuals (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Nevertheless, this paper will pay much attention to the argument for self HIV testing, though it will highlight some arguments against the testing.
Self-testing is a familiar concept; it has been essential in diagnosing and managing different health conditions, for instance, diabetes, colon cancer, and pregnancy. HIV self-testing involves the collection of a finger stick blood or saliva sample for analysis by the user. Generally, people complete this kind of testing with no or little training (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). If the testing is unsupervised, cautions and instructions are always provided. From the time it was introduced, HIV self-testing is always subjected to scrutiny by researchers, regulatory agencies, as well as users because of potential social, ethical, and legal issues (Rapid Response Service 1). Nevertheless, some people support it while others are against it.
The argument for HIV Self Test
Among the things that ought to be considered in relation to the HIV self-test are accuracy, acceptability, destigmatization, and empowerment. The rapid HIV self-test is accepted by individuals who are at the highest risk for HIV infections. Moreover, the results of self-tests are trusted and highly accurate.
In relation to the acceptability of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is highly accepted and recommended since it associated with minimal supervision (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The fact that it is not associated with no false-positive results and false-negative results being rare, people consider HIV self-test to be more accurate. The test has also attracted individuals who have never been involved in HIV testing by other means or do not know their serostatus. Among the things that should be considered corresponding to the HIV individual test are exactness, worthiness, destigmatization, and strengthening. The quick HIV individual test is acknowledged by people who are at the most elevated danger for HIV diseases. Additionally, the consequences of individual tests are trusted and profoundly exact.

Comparable to the adequacy of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is exceptionally acknowledged and suggested since it related with negligible management (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The way that it isn’t related with no bogus positive outcomes and bogus antagonistic outcomes being uncommon, individuals believe HIV individual test to be more exact. The test has additionally drawn in people who have never been engaged with HIV testing by different methods or don’t have the foggiest idea about their serostatus.
Apart from accuracy and high acceptability, HIV self-testing is recommended because of the empowerment of people (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). It also reduces stigmatization, in addition to having the ability to test in a private, anonymous, and confidential manner. Discrimination and stigma, in health care settings, are huge barriers to HIV testing because of fear of the patient’s confidentiality being breached and long waiting time to get the result. Self-testing is assumed to be private and highly confidential and participants, who use self-test kits, believe that it can give them, over their health, more power.
Another reason HIV self-testing is highly recommended is that it increases awareness of risks, promotes testing and disclosure, in addition to improving the serosorting’s accuracy (Wood et al. 120). Since self-testing kits are accessible, people’s attitudes and behaviors have changed; this incorporates being aware of the risks, in addition to more discussions of safe-sex practices. Moreover, in instances where a partner tested positive, sexual encounters stopped (Carballo-Die´guez, Frasca, Balan, Ibitoye & Dolezal 1753). This is also the same case for the partners who are not willing to test themselves. In other words, after a positive test, people prefer not to have sexual intercourse, and this suggests that the HIV self-test can cause increased awareness of the possible risks, in addition to averting sex between discordant partners.
The argument against HIV-Self Test
Though there is, around the world, increased availability of HIV self-testing, there are concerns about lack of test counseling and the need for the individuals who have tested positive to be linked to appropriate care. Another issue arising with this is the fact that there are moments confirmatory testing is essential.
In some regions, for instance, New York, where it has been legalized, self HIV-testing remains to be a concern (Wood, Bellenger, & Stekler 121). In pharmacies, there is a possibility that self-test kits are always placed behind the counter. As a result, in high-morbidity areas, interaction with the pharmacy staff is a must. Some pharmacies still sell the kits at prices above the suggested retail price of the manufacturer. So beyond cost and legality, awareness of the self-test kits, together with the access to these kits, remains to be obstacles.
Another significant concern is associated with HIV self-test is false-negative results (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 121). Also, in the window period, the missing infection can be experienced; this is because the early diseases are known for sometimes exhibiting high viral loads, as well as high transmissibility. If people with high and frequent HIV risk behaviors access the self-test, during the window period, a negative test can lead to false reassurance; hence, increasing sexual intercourse (without condom) with the HIV-negative partners. Hence, HIV transmission will be propagated.
Since missed early infections can be experienced, materials accompanying self-test kits can be stressful to the users. The false-negative results’ risk and acute-retroviral syndrome’s signs during the window period has made care providers not to consider replacing the clinical-based testing with self-test. Self-test ought to be a supplement for patients who cannot do screening in health care centers (Paltiel & Walensky 745). If a self-test is used as a supplement screening, the prevalence of HIV is likely to decrease. Moreover, the positive results ought to be confirmed and the adverse effects to be repeated by more sensitive tests.
Unsupervised HIV self-testing is associated with a lack of in-person or formal counseling (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Wood, Ballenger and Stekler believed that some countries do not recommend the use of self-testing because false-negative tests can cause false reassurance. Without in-person counseling, patients will not have the opportunity to discuss the possible risk of prevention with their health care providers. Moreover, the patient will not be in a position to ask sufficient questions. With the HIV self-testing, there are phone counseling services, though they can never be as effective as face-to-face counseling.
In isolation, there is a concern regarding an individual’s psychological reactions when the patent gets a positive result (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). After positive tests, suicidal thinking has become less frequent with the effectiveness and availability of antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, in settings with limited resources, suicidal thinking is likely to occur.
Apart from limited counseling, another disadvantage of HIV self-testing is how the patient can be linked to care (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Individuals who consider self-test because of fear of discrimination or stigma are at a greater risk of avoiding presenting or linking to healthcare for the same reasons. After testing positive, the patients can consider not to call for support.
Further disadvantages to HIV self-testing are associated with resource-limited settings, for instance, issues related to regulations of test developments and sales, storage of tests and self-tests’ quality control. The self-tests also heighten barriers to HIV-related counseling and linkage to patient care that is given to isolation and geographical distances. Moreover, since rapid tests are antibody-based, HIV self-testing has limited utility for infants’ HIV screening (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 123).
Conclusion
HIV self-tests have managed to reach the highest-risk people who have never been screened for HIV. The self-test promotes mutual partner testing and, therefore, averting sex without using condoms between discordant partners. It is also through HIV self-test that stigmatization can be potentially decreased, in addition to assisting in normalizing testing. Nevertheless, several concerns still persist, i.e., access and cost, false reassurance, linkage to care, coercion, limited counseling. Also, during the window period, missed early infections can be experienced.
Proper regulatory, community involvement, legal framework, and correct information can assist in reducing the risks associated with HIV self-test. In spite of the potential social risks, the self-test has made it possible for more individuals to know their status and empower them to consider taking care of their health. As people get to know their HIV status, there will be a demand for effective treatment. Health care systems will also be strengthening to support patients that have tested positive.

Posted in Uncategorized

Social Work and Policy

Social Work and Policy
Overview: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is a social policy implemented to deal with hunger among Americans. In 2018, SNAP helped around 40 million Americans from low-income families access adequate nutritious diets (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). SNAP offers critical nutritional support for low-wage households, low-income seniors, and persons suffering from disabilities, and other households with low-income. According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019), more than 75% of the SNAP users are households with children, and around 30% are households with disabled people and seniors. Apart from the unemployment insurance, SNAP is one of the most useful and responsive federal policies that offer assistance to families during economic challenging times.
Unlike other benefits programs, SNAP is widely accessible by families with low incomes. The eligibility criteria for SNAP are set by the federal government making them universal across the country. However, the states can vary the programs to ensure proper implementation of the program. The federal government sets three main criteria for qualifying for the SNAP program, including that the gross monthly income must be $2,252 per month or less in a household with three people (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). However, families with seniors and disabled persons are not required to meet these criteria. The family’s net monthly income, less the costs of housing and child care, must be lower than $1,732 per month. The final criteria are that assets must reduce below $2,250 for a household. Every state has its application process. On average, SNAP beneficiary gets around $127 per month. In 2018, the federal government allocated $68 billion on the SNAP program and associated assistance programs.
The two contrasting policy positions on SNAP provide a good perspective on the public perception of the social policy. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) argues that SNAP is a beneficial social program that has helped to improve the standards of living and give adequate diet to low-income and vulnerable families in the United States. The policy argument for SNAP highlights some of the benefits of the program, including the ability to protect the families from economic hardship and lack of food. A contrasting policy by Aussenberg (2018) argued that the SNP program was full of errors and fraud making it inefficient in the utilization of the resources. Some of the errors included trafficking of the SNAP benefits, retailer application fraud, fraud by applicants, and errors and fraud by state agencies. The errors and fraudulent activities counter the argument that the SNAP program is beneficial to the U.S. economy.
Comparison of the Policy Positions
The policy brief by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) supports the implementation of SNAP to help improve nutrition and giving children from low-income households access to quality meals. The program responds immediately in providing help to low-income families during times of economic downturn. When the economy weakens, the enrollment in the program increases. SNAP program assists the families to overcome short-term unemployment and family problems. For example, when parents do not have a job, they will rely on SNAP to feed their children (Berkowitz et al., 2017). The program also assists without adequate resources to buy enough food for their children.
The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) noted that SNAP benefits had lowered concerns of food insecurity among most American households. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) also noted that SNAP also protects the entire U.S economy. SNAP benefits are recognized as the most efficient and effective way for economic stimulus because they increase money supply into the economy. Low-income beneficiaries spent the money on daily needs, increasing money supply into the economy during a recession. SNAP also reduces the degree and severity of economic hardships and poverty (Leung et al., 2017). The program is implemented as an anti-poverty economic tool that focuses on helping families meet their basic needs and reduce insecurities. SNAP is also effective in supporting a culture of healthy eating. The initiative gives low-income families access to healthy foods. SNAP also assists in responding to the inherent disasters quickly by providing essential food assistance to the affected families.
Unlike the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019), Aussenberg (2018) argued that the implementation of the SNAP program allowed for errors and fraud that impacted its benefits to vulnerable people and low-income families. The counter policy proposal explained four types of inaccuracies and misconduct in the implementation of SNAP. One of the types is the trafficking of SNAP benefits, which involves the illegal selling of the benefits to recipients and retailers (Bleich et al., 2020). Such illegal arrangements are acceptable and often lead to the misuse of federal government resources. Another major type of inaccuracies is retailer application fraud that involves illegal efforts by owners of stores to take part in SNAP while they are ineligible. Errors and fraud performed by the households will also make improper applications for SNAP benefits and thus, leading to unacceptable payments. Errors are unintentional mistakes. However, fraud involves intentional efforts by the households to violate the guidelines of the program for selfish gains. Errors and fraud associated with the state agencies cause huge losses of funds because agency errors will lead to significant improper payments. The quality control misconduct and the lack of fiscal supervision often lead to significant agency fraud. However, the congressional research service report agreed that fraud is rare.
Policy Solutions and Support of Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
The SNAP policy solutions incorporate the implementation of various strategies to improve the effectiveness and the benefits of SNAP among the participants. One of the policy solutions is the protection of the current level of funding for SNAP. Some of the congress members have argued against the program calling for the reduction of the budget of the program. There is a need to maintain and increase the SNAP spending to improve the health and the welfare of Americans. The budgetary cuts would hurt the children from low-income families and impact the economic recovery process. The second policy recommendation is the collection of data on SNAP purchases (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). The department of agriculture should gather adequate data and increase awareness of the data on the SNAP purchases to assist in enhancing the nutritional quality of the participants and the transparency and effectiveness of the program. The identification of the integrated strategies would be beneficial in the alignment of the purchases of the program with the appropriate dietary guidelines for the Americans. The identification and testing of transformative improvements on the program will improve nutritious diets and assist in the prevention of obesity among the low-income participants.
The Group, the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, supports the policy solutions by repairing the damage of the reduction of the funding and restrictions of participants. There is a need for the federal government to reverse the restrictions made by the Trump administration to allow young children from immigrants to get access to the SNAP benefits. Such a program would be beneficial in fighting recession and improving the growth of the economy effectively (Berkowitz et al., 2017). Other effective policy recommendations recommended by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities will include focusing on the health of children with the program, use of incentives in making healthy foods easy choice, and creating improved food stocking standards for the retailers (Leung et al., 2017). The improvement of innovation of the program, creation of partnerships with SNAP, and the formulation of the national strategy will be critical in promoting the success of the food assistance program.
Social Policy Solutions Aligns with Social Work Values
Some of the important social work values are service, social justice, dignity, integrity, and competence. The implementation of SNAP is a service to the vulnerable people in the society. The SNAP program seeks to serve the needs of the people by providing funding for the benefits of getting nutritious foods at affordable rates. The policy solutions will perform research to collect data to improve integrity and competence by ensuring only eligible participants enjoy the SNAP benefits. Errors and fraud would make the implementation of SNAP a violation of the NASW code of ethics. However, the innovation of the SNAP application process and rectifying potential errors and fraud will improve the fairness and the integrity of the program (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). The social justice value aligns with the SNAP policy solution to maintain the funding and ensure consistency in the registering of the applicants. Therefore, the SNAP initiative will be useful to low-income families to get nutritious and affordable meals and help them in recovery during economic recession times.

References
Aussenberg, R. A. (2018, September 28). Errors and Fraud in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45147.pdf.
Berkowitz, S. A., Seligman, H. K., Rigdon, J., Meigs, J. B., & Basu, S. (2017). Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and health care expenditures among low-income adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 177(11), 1642-1649.
Bleich, S. N., Moran, A. J., Vercammen, K. A., Frelier, J. M., Dunn, C. G., Zhong, A., & Fleischhacker, S. E. (2020). Strengthening the public health impacts of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program through policy. Annual Review of Public Health, 41, 453-480.
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2019, June 25). Policy basics: The supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP). https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/policy-basics-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap#:~:text=SNAP%20enables%20low%2Dincome%20households,individuals%20not%20participating%20in%20SNAP.
Leung, C. W., Musicus, A. A., Willett, W. C., & Rimm, E. B. (2017). Improving the nutritional impact of the supplemental nutrition assistance program: perspectives from the participants. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(2), S193-S198.

Posted in Social Work

Nano-engineering

The field of engineering is quite large, encompassing many branches, such as Nano-engineering. To put it simply, the branch of Nano-engineering incorporates aspects of designing, building, and utilizing engines, machines, and objects on the nanoscale. In this manner, Nano-engineering is engineering that concerns studying, developing, and refining materials at the lowest scale (Nano) possible. Provided with that, Nano-engineering can be considered the concrete application of nanoscience, which is comparable to how mechanical engineering involves applying physics principles. Accordingly, at its core, Nano-engineering is the interaction and use of nanomaterials for making systems, structures, and devices that are smaller and useful.
As per Umemura (2018), Nano-engineering enhances prevailing applications, materials, together with industrial processes, by reducing their size to the nanoscale for ultimately exploiting their distinctive surface phenomena and quantum portent. Taking that into account, there are two reasons why Nano-engineering is important. At the onset, Nano-engineering makes it possible to use nanomaterials, which have a comparatively larger surface area. Umemura indicates that having a larger surface area is important since nanomaterials are more reactive to chemicals and how their electrical and strength properties are affected. In this way, the nanomaterials are applicable in more ways. Apart from that, Nano-engineering is also important since materials can be produced in multiple ways. To be specific, Umemura (2018) articulates that with Nano-engineering, it is possible to produce nanomaterials in all dimensions, i.e., one-dimension like nanotubes, two-dimension like graphene, and in three-dimension like nanoparticles.
For the most part, Nano-engineering involves utilizing nanotechnology for designing, producing, and applying nanomaterials. Kelkar, Herr, and Ryan (2014) suggest that to understand how Nano-engineering works, it is essential to know the meaning of the term ‘nano’ that implies dwarf. Accordingly, Kelkar et al. state that the term ‘nano’ references an object or something that is one-billionth of a unit. To put it into context, Kelkar et al. (2014) explain that a human DNA strand, which is only visible under a microscope, is less than three nanometers. As such, Nano-engineering works by manipulating objects and things at this nanoscale to make nanomaterials that can be applied in areas where the objects’ original size could not.
Sengupta and Sarkar (2015) report that electron microscope development sparked Nano-engineering as a field in engineering. In the last 10 to 15 years, Nano-engineering has been applied to improve life in several ways. For instance, Sengupta and Sarkar state that Nano-engineering enabled chemists to make polymers that are molecules comprising nanoscale molecules used to make various products, like silicone heart valves and fiberglass, among others. More importantly, Sengupta and Sarkar (2015) mention that Nano-engineering made it possible to create chips that revolutionized machines and devices. Computers made from these chips are faster and cheaper to produce, which accounts for the increasing development and use of computers and smartphones.
At present, Nano-engineering is enhancing lives in both predictable and unforeseen ways. To start, Nano-engineering is extensively improving and revolutionizing many industry and technology sectors. Sharma and Hamid (2017) discuss that most commercial products nowadays rely on nanomaterials and processes. For instance, this is evidenced by how nanomaterials make superior stain removers and degreasers that are safe to the environment. Apart from that, nanoparticles are increasingly being utilized, especially for boosting chemical reactions, saving money, and reducing pollutants. Sharma and Hamid insist that Nano-engineering is currently being used to tackle some of the world’s issues, like climate change. To be specific, Sharma and Hamid (2017) articulate that Nano-engineering is being used to mitigate climate change through the development of batteries for electric cars to reduce over-reliance on fuel. As a result, climate change is slowly being prevented since Nano-engineering delivers products that are safe to the environment.
Progress is inevitable, and this principle also applies to Nano-engineering. However, shrinking objects and things to their nanoscale can affect their performance based on how the physical properties are modified. Consequently, mastering Nano-engineering holds a lot of promise for the future since it will be possible to apply it in all aspects of modern life. The prospects are limitless, ranging from application in medicine, whereby it will be possible to monitor recovery from surgery to develop internal devices that can change and control organ functions. Likewise, Goddard, Brenner, Lyshevski, and Lafrate (2018) suggest that Nano-engineering will revolutionize computer memory to develop ultra-dense memory storage that will provide enough capacity to store the increasing quantity of data and information.
To sum up, Nano-engineering is a promising and exciting field to study. Upon graduating in Nano-engineering, it will be possible to contribute to the development of research to society by having all the required expertise for pursuing careers as medical scientists or Nano engineers. In terms of contributing to research, graduating in Nano-engineering will open many possibilities for developing and creating nanomaterials that can continue enhancing our lives.

References
Goddard, W. A., Brenner, D., Lyshevski, S. E., & Lafrate, G. J. (2018). Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering, and Technology. CRC Press.
Kelkar, D. A., Herr, D. J. C., & Ryan, J. G. (2014). Nanoscience and Nano-engineering: Advances and Applications. CRC Press.
Sengupta, A., & Sarkar, C. K. (2015). Introduction to Nano: basics to nanoscience and nanotechnology. Springer Publications.
Sharma, K. V., & Hamid, N. H. B. (n2017). Engineering applications of nanotechnology: From energy to drug delivery. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publications.
Umemura, K. (2018). Nano-engineering and materials technologies II: 6th ICNNN 2017 and ICTMA 2017: selected, peer-reviewed papers from the 6th International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nano-engineering 2017 (ICNNN 2017) and 2017 the 2nd International Conference on Materials Technology and Applications (ICMTA2017), October 26-29, 2017, Tokyo, Japan.

Posted in Engineering

More about:


Week 12 Memo
Tanya Golash-Boza, Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach – Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2015.
In the chapter, Income, and labor market inequality, Golash-Boza Discusses the fact that the United States has become one of the unequal Western nations. The disparity has been propagated within the lines of race and gender such that African Americans and the Latinx get considerably minimal wages than the white racial group (Golash-Boza, 2015, 103). Racial inequality is not happening in terms of income levels but also within the labor market. Asians have the highest median earnings than whites, blacks, and Latinx in that respective order. Nonetheless, for as long as one can remember, white workers’ median income has been higher than that of black workers creating an earnings gap with many explanations attached to it.
In terms of gender, a wage gap does exist between men and women in the country’s labor market such that a woman will earn one average of 83 cents hourly for every dollar that a man earns. Furthermore, the differences in earnings by gender and also across the racial and ethnic groups are strikingly evident. The white woman will earn 81 cents for every dollar that a white man earns (Golash-Boza, 2015, 183). Nonetheless, the black woman makes only 65 cents for every dollar made by a white man, while the Latina woman will make only 58 cents (Golash-Boza, 2015, 184). From this analysis, it is clear that when analyzing racial inequality within the labor market while not considering gender, one will not get an accurate picture.
The differences in the income and labor market across racial lines demonstrate that discrimination is still present despite the affirmative actions and establishment of anti-discrimination laws and lawsuits. The author gives fundamental reasons why the discrimination persists, which are reasons I agree to. One of them is that it is very challenging to legislate discrimination away. Some employers are unconsciously discriminating the nonwhites and women (Golash-Boza, 2015, 196). The American society is ingrained with racial ideologies that its people now use to create individual perceptions. Entrenched stereotypes and implicit biases will have a white hiring manager unknowingly consider himself and other white people natural leaders. The nonwhites will take more effort to fit into such positions (Golash-Boza, 2015, 200). He could easily presume that the African American man is irresponsible and the Latinx individual can never be professional. These perceptions will significantly influence the persons hired into their working environment, making it challenging to end labor market discrimination. This will only happen when the racial stereotypes are eliminated.
Another reason for the earnings gap is the structural growth happening in particular industries and the construction happening in other industries resulting from global economic forces beyond the control of the country’s government. A government can choose to provide training programs to instill people with updated skills to fit them into the emerging fields. Notably, if these training programs can ensure that the trainees learn together without racial segregation, it becomes easier to falsify established racial stereotypes and reduce the existing racial disparities. Additionally, the entrenched inequality, patriarchy, and racial divisions within the labor market and small-business market will make it challenging to fight racial inequality. These matters make the United States increasingly unequal since the reasons for their existence are embedded in the country’s history and lifeline.
During this reading, the statistics presented were quite interesting and thought-provoking. It is incredibly intriguing that race and gender still determine the remuneration level a person deserves despite people working similar jobs. Notably, Goulash-Boza makes sense in stating that this has been the outcome of the constructed stereotypes within the society that have ended up harming even individuals’ income levels. Nonetheless, not everything is lost since these racial groups’ empowerment should help increase awareness on why equitable income levels and treatment in the labor market are necessary. From a young age, individuals need to have equal access to educational opportunities. Training and even economic opportunities will see them take part in the economic development of their countries. Racial discrimination hence becomes a thing of the past as the impact of these segregated groups is felt.

Posted in Economics