History summary of the Book “A Pocket Guide to Writing in History.”
A Pocket Guide to Writing is a brief guide that offers guidelines on the best writing and research skills necessary for undergraduate history courses. Mary Lynn Rampolla writes the book. It comprehensively covers all steps of the research and writing process, including elaborate advice on avoiding plagiarism. The book is subdivided into three chapters covering a broader range of topics making it compact enough to be tuck into a pocket. The eighth edition provides fundamental guidance on the tested skill of “doing history.” It reflects on the emerging aspects of history pedagogy and offers advice on the impact of technology in writing and researching in history. The author was encouraged by his colleagues at Trinity Washington University.
Chapter one offers a reflection on the importance of studying history and how to use historical evidence. The chapter records that studying history tells us how we to be and who we are.
It also looks at the origins of modern institutions, allows people to see the world from different angles and perspectives. Moreover, studying history helps individuals make informed decisions regarding the future by comprehending the complexities of the past have shaped the world.
The second chapter focuses on identifying and categorizing sources and the use of those categories. It is noted that sources fall into two categories, which include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources entail the materials produced directly by individuals on the topic of discussion. On the other hand, secondary sources consist of books and films produced by people who are not historians, journalists or writers. Primary sources enable one to enter the lives of those people he or she is studying. Seconar3y sources provide a broader perspective of past events and allow a person to use them in context.
Finally, the third chapter provides the best approaches to typical assignments. It guides reading strategies. The reading strategies provided includes pre-reading the text to get a sense of the article, determining the author’s thesis to absorb the text more effectively, reading with the thesis in mind, critiquing the article and reviewing what you have written

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Part A
Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson theorized middle adulthood as the stage of Generativity – Versus – Stagnation as the in middle adulthood in which individuals consider their contributions to their society, family, community and work (Feldman 2017 pg. 585). According to Erick, this psychosocial stage of development occurs during middle adulthood (between 40 – 65 years of age). Through mentoring or parenting, people strive to provide guidance and encouragement to their future generations during the generativity stage. They can choose to contribute to other people’s lives in positive ways. Moreover, the generativity stage suggests that people will try to make a mark on the world by caring for other people and creating and doing things that make the world a better place to live. Nevertheless, stagnation refers to a person’s failure to contribute, and consequently, such a person disconnects or gets uninvolved with the community or society. Several individuals who go through the Generativity Versus Stagnation stage can successfully have a sense of accomplishment towards their contribution to their society or community.
Nevertheless, in development, Erick Erickson considers Ego Integrity Versus Despair Stage to be the final stage. In this stage, according to Feldman (2017, pg. 655), the human being is known for looking back over his life, evaluating it, in addition to coming to terms with it. This stage has been taking place in late adulthood, which starts at 65 until death; people can be paying attention to evaluating their contribution and accomplishment and impacts they have made to community, society and comes into agreement with facing the end. Hence, ego integrity is successfully achieved. Though several adults can look back and develop a sense of regret with their lives, such adults can feel that they could not accomplish what they work for or missed out on opportunities. Consequently, these adults are likely to become angry, depressed or unhappy. Therefore, if the adults do not become successful at this stage, they can become victims of despair.
Consequently, a positive or negative outcome can be brought about by occurrence. As an attempt to accomplish each development stage before time, many people go social challenges; hence, making it difficult for them to have positive relationships with other people. For some people, these challenges have been leading to negative outcomes. Nevertheless, in the generativity stage, a positive outcome can emerge when society’s social aspects are understood and managed. While ego integrity versus despair stage, failure to achieve goals will make an individual view late adulthood negatively, they can face challenges fitting into society; hence, in late adulthood, a lot of care is needed. Thus, a positive or adverse result can be achieved by event. As an endeavor to achieve every improvement stage before time, numerous individuals go social difficulties; consequently, making it hard for them to have positive associations with others. For certain individuals, these difficulties have been prompting adverse results. By the by, in the generativity stage, a positive result can arise when society’s social angles are perceived and overseen. While sense of self honesty versus despair stage, inability to accomplish objectives will make an individual view late adulthood adversely, they can confront difficulties finding a way into society; subsequently, in late adulthood, a ton of care is required.
Part B
During late adulthood, human beings have been undergoing both cognitive and physical changes, which affect their quality of life and lastly lead them to death. Nevertheless, motor abilities, physical appearance, and sensation are profoundly affected in late adulthood. The formation of wrinkles starts, and the skin starts becoming thin and less elastic. Beneath the surface of the skin, the small blood vessels break. Moreover, the age spots form on the body. As melanin decreases, hair turns gray and thin. Since the bone density decreases, the height of an individual lessens by an inch or two. The aging’s double standard applies to men and women into older adulthood, like how it was in middle adulthood. Older men can still best distinguish, as older women are being referred to over the hill, and past the prime of life.
As the senses start to become dull, with age, the eyes’ lenses become rigid and discolor; hence, interfere with the ability to read, perception of distance and color. Therefore, older adults will be needed to wear corrective glasses or lens. The hearing starts diminishing, specifically detecting high-pitched sounds, which becomes a problem. Nevertheless, with widely available hearing aids, hearing problems are always corrected. At the same time, in old age, taste remains the same, though elderly persons can have difficulties distinguishing the tastes in the blended foods.
Apart from the dulling of the senses and changes in appearance, the fine motor abilities decrease and reflex slow with the old age. Some adults have been experiencing a slow reduction in how they respond to certain spontaneous events during late adulthood. This is common for older people who have been driving. The reaction times of older people will decline to the extent that they start hazardously operating their vehicles.
Also, on sexuality, aging has been taking its toll. Older women are known for producing less vaginal lubrication and their vagina becoming less stretchable because female hormone levels have reduced. Unlike young men, older men are less able to attain orgasms and erections and reduced testosterone levels because they produce fewer secretions from accessory sex glands. Likewise, older men have little or no urge to ejaculate or have long waiting times before regaining an erection. Furthermore, such changes in their sexual abilities ought not to prevent older adults from enjoying their sex life.
Nevertheless, among the inevitable consequences of aging is intellectual decline. Older adults learn more slowly, in addition to performing less well on tasks that involve memorization and imagination, unlike the younger adults, do, though what older adults can lack in terms of specific mental tasks, they have been making up for in wisdom, or expert and practical knowledge based on their life experience. Moreover, older adults experience memory problems because of sensory storage issues in the short-term instead of the long‐term memory processes. Older adults have much fewer difficulties in recalling places and names from long ago, unlike they do when recalling or acquiring new information.
Furthermore, practice and repetition assist in minimizing the decline of memory and some cognitive functions. Older adults who have been keeping their mind fit and active continue to learn and grow, though somehow slowly that the young adults. On the part of the elderly and their significant others, understanding and patient, memory training, and continuing education are significant for maintaining their quality of life and mental abilities in the later years.
Notably, for all adults and in the old age, death is inevitable. All adults are known for going through physical declines that eventually lead them to death. Though some older adults will remain healthy, some will suffer from terminal diseases like stroke, heart diseases, and cancer. In some, the inability of the body to recuperate can cause death. Moreover, aging, genetic programming theories assume that the DNA genetic coding of the body contains limited time on the cell production within the body; hence, this speeds up the aging process, something that will eventually lead to death. Other theories, such as wear and tear theories, claim that after a certain duration, the body always physically wears out with age because of environmental and situational factors. These factors contribute to the impairment of the body’s ability to function and will later lead to deterioration and, eventually, death. Though these theories suggest that the bodies will decline, but it remains unclear why they deteriorate and die. Moreover, our population’s life expectancy has seen tremendously increased over the past few centuries with differences in gender, race, and ethnicity as factors. Researchers also believed that the individuals’ life span rate is likely to increase because of technological advances in medicine, sanitation, and a balanced diet. The life span of aging adults can also be increased by organ replacement (Feldman, 2017, Pg. 627-37).

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Internationally, almost 60% of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected people have not been tested. Such people are not aware of their serostatus (Krause et al. 735). In different parts of the world, access to testing is still an issue, and fear of discrimination and stigmatization are a threat to HIV testing services’ acceptance. In America, some people with HIV are undiagnosed, and such people can be responsible for about one-half of HIV/AIDs transmissions in the nation (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Consequently, routine and repeated HIV testing or screening are highly recommended for patients in health care centers. Accurately, HIV screening methods are essential since they increase the rates of diagnosis; this can create room for early antiretroviral therapy for the infected individuals’ health and decrease the possibilities of transmissions to susceptible individuals (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 117). Nevertheless, this paper will pay much attention to the argument for self HIV testing, though it will highlight some arguments against the testing.
Self-testing is a familiar concept; it has been essential in diagnosing and managing different health conditions, for instance, diabetes, colon cancer, and pregnancy. HIV self-testing involves the collection of a finger stick blood or saliva sample for analysis by the user. Generally, people complete this kind of testing with no or little training (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). If the testing is unsupervised, cautions and instructions are always provided. From the time it was introduced, HIV self-testing is always subjected to scrutiny by researchers, regulatory agencies, as well as users because of potential social, ethical, and legal issues (Rapid Response Service 1). Nevertheless, some people support it while others are against it.
The argument for HIV Self Test
Among the things that ought to be considered in relation to the HIV self-test are accuracy, acceptability, destigmatization, and empowerment. The rapid HIV self-test is accepted by individuals who are at the highest risk for HIV infections. Moreover, the results of self-tests are trusted and highly accurate.
In relation to the acceptability of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is highly accepted and recommended since it associated with minimal supervision (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The fact that it is not associated with no false-positive results and false-negative results being rare, people consider HIV self-test to be more accurate. The test has also attracted individuals who have never been involved in HIV testing by other means or do not know their serostatus. Among the things that should be considered corresponding to the HIV individual test are exactness, worthiness, destigmatization, and strengthening. The quick HIV individual test is acknowledged by people who are at the most elevated danger for HIV diseases. Additionally, the consequences of individual tests are trusted and profoundly exact.

Comparable to the adequacy of HIV self-testing, home self-testing is exceptionally acknowledged and suggested since it related with negligible management (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 119). The way that it isn’t related with no bogus positive outcomes and bogus antagonistic outcomes being uncommon, individuals believe HIV individual test to be more exact. The test has additionally drawn in people who have never been engaged with HIV testing by different methods or don’t have the foggiest idea about their serostatus.
Apart from accuracy and high acceptability, HIV self-testing is recommended because of the empowerment of people (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 118). It also reduces stigmatization, in addition to having the ability to test in a private, anonymous, and confidential manner. Discrimination and stigma, in health care settings, are huge barriers to HIV testing because of fear of the patient’s confidentiality being breached and long waiting time to get the result. Self-testing is assumed to be private and highly confidential and participants, who use self-test kits, believe that it can give them, over their health, more power.
Another reason HIV self-testing is highly recommended is that it increases awareness of risks, promotes testing and disclosure, in addition to improving the serosorting’s accuracy (Wood et al. 120). Since self-testing kits are accessible, people’s attitudes and behaviors have changed; this incorporates being aware of the risks, in addition to more discussions of safe-sex practices. Moreover, in instances where a partner tested positive, sexual encounters stopped (Carballo-Die´guez, Frasca, Balan, Ibitoye & Dolezal 1753). This is also the same case for the partners who are not willing to test themselves. In other words, after a positive test, people prefer not to have sexual intercourse, and this suggests that the HIV self-test can cause increased awareness of the possible risks, in addition to averting sex between discordant partners.
The argument against HIV-Self Test
Though there is, around the world, increased availability of HIV self-testing, there are concerns about lack of test counseling and the need for the individuals who have tested positive to be linked to appropriate care. Another issue arising with this is the fact that there are moments confirmatory testing is essential.
In some regions, for instance, New York, where it has been legalized, self HIV-testing remains to be a concern (Wood, Bellenger, & Stekler 121). In pharmacies, there is a possibility that self-test kits are always placed behind the counter. As a result, in high-morbidity areas, interaction with the pharmacy staff is a must. Some pharmacies still sell the kits at prices above the suggested retail price of the manufacturer. So beyond cost and legality, awareness of the self-test kits, together with the access to these kits, remains to be obstacles.
Another significant concern is associated with HIV self-test is false-negative results (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 121). Also, in the window period, the missing infection can be experienced; this is because the early diseases are known for sometimes exhibiting high viral loads, as well as high transmissibility. If people with high and frequent HIV risk behaviors access the self-test, during the window period, a negative test can lead to false reassurance; hence, increasing sexual intercourse (without condom) with the HIV-negative partners. Hence, HIV transmission will be propagated.
Since missed early infections can be experienced, materials accompanying self-test kits can be stressful to the users. The false-negative results’ risk and acute-retroviral syndrome’s signs during the window period has made care providers not to consider replacing the clinical-based testing with self-test. Self-test ought to be a supplement for patients who cannot do screening in health care centers (Paltiel & Walensky 745). If a self-test is used as a supplement screening, the prevalence of HIV is likely to decrease. Moreover, the positive results ought to be confirmed and the adverse effects to be repeated by more sensitive tests.
Unsupervised HIV self-testing is associated with a lack of in-person or formal counseling (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Wood, Ballenger and Stekler believed that some countries do not recommend the use of self-testing because false-negative tests can cause false reassurance. Without in-person counseling, patients will not have the opportunity to discuss the possible risk of prevention with their health care providers. Moreover, the patient will not be in a position to ask sufficient questions. With the HIV self-testing, there are phone counseling services, though they can never be as effective as face-to-face counseling.
In isolation, there is a concern regarding an individual’s psychological reactions when the patent gets a positive result (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). After positive tests, suicidal thinking has become less frequent with the effectiveness and availability of antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, in settings with limited resources, suicidal thinking is likely to occur.
Apart from limited counseling, another disadvantage of HIV self-testing is how the patient can be linked to care (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 122). Individuals who consider self-test because of fear of discrimination or stigma are at a greater risk of avoiding presenting or linking to healthcare for the same reasons. After testing positive, the patients can consider not to call for support.
Further disadvantages to HIV self-testing are associated with resource-limited settings, for instance, issues related to regulations of test developments and sales, storage of tests and self-tests’ quality control. The self-tests also heighten barriers to HIV-related counseling and linkage to patient care that is given to isolation and geographical distances. Moreover, since rapid tests are antibody-based, HIV self-testing has limited utility for infants’ HIV screening (Wood, Ballenger, & Stekler 123).
Conclusion
HIV self-tests have managed to reach the highest-risk people who have never been screened for HIV. The self-test promotes mutual partner testing and, therefore, averting sex without using condoms between discordant partners. It is also through HIV self-test that stigmatization can be potentially decreased, in addition to assisting in normalizing testing. Nevertheless, several concerns still persist, i.e., access and cost, false reassurance, linkage to care, coercion, limited counseling. Also, during the window period, missed early infections can be experienced.
Proper regulatory, community involvement, legal framework, and correct information can assist in reducing the risks associated with HIV self-test. In spite of the potential social risks, the self-test has made it possible for more individuals to know their status and empower them to consider taking care of their health. As people get to know their HIV status, there will be a demand for effective treatment. Health care systems will also be strengthening to support patients that have tested positive.

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Social Work and Policy

Social Work and Policy
Overview: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is a social policy implemented to deal with hunger among Americans. In 2018, SNAP helped around 40 million Americans from low-income families access adequate nutritious diets (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). SNAP offers critical nutritional support for low-wage households, low-income seniors, and persons suffering from disabilities, and other households with low-income. According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019), more than 75% of the SNAP users are households with children, and around 30% are households with disabled people and seniors. Apart from the unemployment insurance, SNAP is one of the most useful and responsive federal policies that offer assistance to families during economic challenging times.
Unlike other benefits programs, SNAP is widely accessible by families with low incomes. The eligibility criteria for SNAP are set by the federal government making them universal across the country. However, the states can vary the programs to ensure proper implementation of the program. The federal government sets three main criteria for qualifying for the SNAP program, including that the gross monthly income must be $2,252 per month or less in a household with three people (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). However, families with seniors and disabled persons are not required to meet these criteria. The family’s net monthly income, less the costs of housing and child care, must be lower than $1,732 per month. The final criteria are that assets must reduce below $2,250 for a household. Every state has its application process. On average, SNAP beneficiary gets around $127 per month. In 2018, the federal government allocated $68 billion on the SNAP program and associated assistance programs.
The two contrasting policy positions on SNAP provide a good perspective on the public perception of the social policy. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) argues that SNAP is a beneficial social program that has helped to improve the standards of living and give adequate diet to low-income and vulnerable families in the United States. The policy argument for SNAP highlights some of the benefits of the program, including the ability to protect the families from economic hardship and lack of food. A contrasting policy by Aussenberg (2018) argued that the SNP program was full of errors and fraud making it inefficient in the utilization of the resources. Some of the errors included trafficking of the SNAP benefits, retailer application fraud, fraud by applicants, and errors and fraud by state agencies. The errors and fraudulent activities counter the argument that the SNAP program is beneficial to the U.S. economy.
Comparison of the Policy Positions
The policy brief by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) supports the implementation of SNAP to help improve nutrition and giving children from low-income households access to quality meals. The program responds immediately in providing help to low-income families during times of economic downturn. When the economy weakens, the enrollment in the program increases. SNAP program assists the families to overcome short-term unemployment and family problems. For example, when parents do not have a job, they will rely on SNAP to feed their children (Berkowitz et al., 2017). The program also assists without adequate resources to buy enough food for their children.
The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) noted that SNAP benefits had lowered concerns of food insecurity among most American households. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019) also noted that SNAP also protects the entire U.S economy. SNAP benefits are recognized as the most efficient and effective way for economic stimulus because they increase money supply into the economy. Low-income beneficiaries spent the money on daily needs, increasing money supply into the economy during a recession. SNAP also reduces the degree and severity of economic hardships and poverty (Leung et al., 2017). The program is implemented as an anti-poverty economic tool that focuses on helping families meet their basic needs and reduce insecurities. SNAP is also effective in supporting a culture of healthy eating. The initiative gives low-income families access to healthy foods. SNAP also assists in responding to the inherent disasters quickly by providing essential food assistance to the affected families.
Unlike the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2019), Aussenberg (2018) argued that the implementation of the SNAP program allowed for errors and fraud that impacted its benefits to vulnerable people and low-income families. The counter policy proposal explained four types of inaccuracies and misconduct in the implementation of SNAP. One of the types is the trafficking of SNAP benefits, which involves the illegal selling of the benefits to recipients and retailers (Bleich et al., 2020). Such illegal arrangements are acceptable and often lead to the misuse of federal government resources. Another major type of inaccuracies is retailer application fraud that involves illegal efforts by owners of stores to take part in SNAP while they are ineligible. Errors and fraud performed by the households will also make improper applications for SNAP benefits and thus, leading to unacceptable payments. Errors are unintentional mistakes. However, fraud involves intentional efforts by the households to violate the guidelines of the program for selfish gains. Errors and fraud associated with the state agencies cause huge losses of funds because agency errors will lead to significant improper payments. The quality control misconduct and the lack of fiscal supervision often lead to significant agency fraud. However, the congressional research service report agreed that fraud is rare.
Policy Solutions and Support of Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
The SNAP policy solutions incorporate the implementation of various strategies to improve the effectiveness and the benefits of SNAP among the participants. One of the policy solutions is the protection of the current level of funding for SNAP. Some of the congress members have argued against the program calling for the reduction of the budget of the program. There is a need to maintain and increase the SNAP spending to improve the health and the welfare of Americans. The budgetary cuts would hurt the children from low-income families and impact the economic recovery process. The second policy recommendation is the collection of data on SNAP purchases (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). The department of agriculture should gather adequate data and increase awareness of the data on the SNAP purchases to assist in enhancing the nutritional quality of the participants and the transparency and effectiveness of the program. The identification of the integrated strategies would be beneficial in the alignment of the purchases of the program with the appropriate dietary guidelines for the Americans. The identification and testing of transformative improvements on the program will improve nutritious diets and assist in the prevention of obesity among the low-income participants.
The Group, the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, supports the policy solutions by repairing the damage of the reduction of the funding and restrictions of participants. There is a need for the federal government to reverse the restrictions made by the Trump administration to allow young children from immigrants to get access to the SNAP benefits. Such a program would be beneficial in fighting recession and improving the growth of the economy effectively (Berkowitz et al., 2017). Other effective policy recommendations recommended by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities will include focusing on the health of children with the program, use of incentives in making healthy foods easy choice, and creating improved food stocking standards for the retailers (Leung et al., 2017). The improvement of innovation of the program, creation of partnerships with SNAP, and the formulation of the national strategy will be critical in promoting the success of the food assistance program.
Social Policy Solutions Aligns with Social Work Values
Some of the important social work values are service, social justice, dignity, integrity, and competence. The implementation of SNAP is a service to the vulnerable people in the society. The SNAP program seeks to serve the needs of the people by providing funding for the benefits of getting nutritious foods at affordable rates. The policy solutions will perform research to collect data to improve integrity and competence by ensuring only eligible participants enjoy the SNAP benefits. Errors and fraud would make the implementation of SNAP a violation of the NASW code of ethics. However, the innovation of the SNAP application process and rectifying potential errors and fraud will improve the fairness and the integrity of the program (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2019). The social justice value aligns with the SNAP policy solution to maintain the funding and ensure consistency in the registering of the applicants. Therefore, the SNAP initiative will be useful to low-income families to get nutritious and affordable meals and help them in recovery during economic recession times.

References
Aussenberg, R. A. (2018, September 28). Errors and Fraud in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45147.pdf.
Berkowitz, S. A., Seligman, H. K., Rigdon, J., Meigs, J. B., & Basu, S. (2017). Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and health care expenditures among low-income adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 177(11), 1642-1649.
Bleich, S. N., Moran, A. J., Vercammen, K. A., Frelier, J. M., Dunn, C. G., Zhong, A., & Fleischhacker, S. E. (2020). Strengthening the public health impacts of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program through policy. Annual Review of Public Health, 41, 453-480.
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (2019, June 25). Policy basics: The supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP). https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/policy-basics-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap#:~:text=SNAP%20enables%20low%2Dincome%20households,individuals%20not%20participating%20in%20SNAP.
Leung, C. W., Musicus, A. A., Willett, W. C., & Rimm, E. B. (2017). Improving the nutritional impact of the supplemental nutrition assistance program: perspectives from the participants. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(2), S193-S198.

Posted in Social Work

Nano-engineering

The field of engineering is quite large, encompassing many branches, such as Nano-engineering. To put it simply, the branch of Nano-engineering incorporates aspects of designing, building, and utilizing engines, machines, and objects on the nanoscale. In this manner, Nano-engineering is engineering that concerns studying, developing, and refining materials at the lowest scale (Nano) possible. Provided with that, Nano-engineering can be considered the concrete application of nanoscience, which is comparable to how mechanical engineering involves applying physics principles. Accordingly, at its core, Nano-engineering is the interaction and use of nanomaterials for making systems, structures, and devices that are smaller and useful.
As per Umemura (2018), Nano-engineering enhances prevailing applications, materials, together with industrial processes, by reducing their size to the nanoscale for ultimately exploiting their distinctive surface phenomena and quantum portent. Taking that into account, there are two reasons why Nano-engineering is important. At the onset, Nano-engineering makes it possible to use nanomaterials, which have a comparatively larger surface area. Umemura indicates that having a larger surface area is important since nanomaterials are more reactive to chemicals and how their electrical and strength properties are affected. In this way, the nanomaterials are applicable in more ways. Apart from that, Nano-engineering is also important since materials can be produced in multiple ways. To be specific, Umemura (2018) articulates that with Nano-engineering, it is possible to produce nanomaterials in all dimensions, i.e., one-dimension like nanotubes, two-dimension like graphene, and in three-dimension like nanoparticles.
For the most part, Nano-engineering involves utilizing nanotechnology for designing, producing, and applying nanomaterials. Kelkar, Herr, and Ryan (2014) suggest that to understand how Nano-engineering works, it is essential to know the meaning of the term ‘nano’ that implies dwarf. Accordingly, Kelkar et al. state that the term ‘nano’ references an object or something that is one-billionth of a unit. To put it into context, Kelkar et al. (2014) explain that a human DNA strand, which is only visible under a microscope, is less than three nanometers. As such, Nano-engineering works by manipulating objects and things at this nanoscale to make nanomaterials that can be applied in areas where the objects’ original size could not.
Sengupta and Sarkar (2015) report that electron microscope development sparked Nano-engineering as a field in engineering. In the last 10 to 15 years, Nano-engineering has been applied to improve life in several ways. For instance, Sengupta and Sarkar state that Nano-engineering enabled chemists to make polymers that are molecules comprising nanoscale molecules used to make various products, like silicone heart valves and fiberglass, among others. More importantly, Sengupta and Sarkar (2015) mention that Nano-engineering made it possible to create chips that revolutionized machines and devices. Computers made from these chips are faster and cheaper to produce, which accounts for the increasing development and use of computers and smartphones.
At present, Nano-engineering is enhancing lives in both predictable and unforeseen ways. To start, Nano-engineering is extensively improving and revolutionizing many industry and technology sectors. Sharma and Hamid (2017) discuss that most commercial products nowadays rely on nanomaterials and processes. For instance, this is evidenced by how nanomaterials make superior stain removers and degreasers that are safe to the environment. Apart from that, nanoparticles are increasingly being utilized, especially for boosting chemical reactions, saving money, and reducing pollutants. Sharma and Hamid insist that Nano-engineering is currently being used to tackle some of the world’s issues, like climate change. To be specific, Sharma and Hamid (2017) articulate that Nano-engineering is being used to mitigate climate change through the development of batteries for electric cars to reduce over-reliance on fuel. As a result, climate change is slowly being prevented since Nano-engineering delivers products that are safe to the environment.
Progress is inevitable, and this principle also applies to Nano-engineering. However, shrinking objects and things to their nanoscale can affect their performance based on how the physical properties are modified. Consequently, mastering Nano-engineering holds a lot of promise for the future since it will be possible to apply it in all aspects of modern life. The prospects are limitless, ranging from application in medicine, whereby it will be possible to monitor recovery from surgery to develop internal devices that can change and control organ functions. Likewise, Goddard, Brenner, Lyshevski, and Lafrate (2018) suggest that Nano-engineering will revolutionize computer memory to develop ultra-dense memory storage that will provide enough capacity to store the increasing quantity of data and information.
To sum up, Nano-engineering is a promising and exciting field to study. Upon graduating in Nano-engineering, it will be possible to contribute to the development of research to society by having all the required expertise for pursuing careers as medical scientists or Nano engineers. In terms of contributing to research, graduating in Nano-engineering will open many possibilities for developing and creating nanomaterials that can continue enhancing our lives.

References
Goddard, W. A., Brenner, D., Lyshevski, S. E., & Lafrate, G. J. (2018). Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering, and Technology. CRC Press.
Kelkar, D. A., Herr, D. J. C., & Ryan, J. G. (2014). Nanoscience and Nano-engineering: Advances and Applications. CRC Press.
Sengupta, A., & Sarkar, C. K. (2015). Introduction to Nano: basics to nanoscience and nanotechnology. Springer Publications.
Sharma, K. V., & Hamid, N. H. B. (n2017). Engineering applications of nanotechnology: From energy to drug delivery. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publications.
Umemura, K. (2018). Nano-engineering and materials technologies II: 6th ICNNN 2017 and ICTMA 2017: selected, peer-reviewed papers from the 6th International Conference on Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nano-engineering 2017 (ICNNN 2017) and 2017 the 2nd International Conference on Materials Technology and Applications (ICMTA2017), October 26-29, 2017, Tokyo, Japan.

Posted in Engineering

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Week 12 Memo
Tanya Golash-Boza, Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach – Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2015.
In the chapter, Income, and labor market inequality, Golash-Boza Discusses the fact that the United States has become one of the unequal Western nations. The disparity has been propagated within the lines of race and gender such that African Americans and the Latinx get considerably minimal wages than the white racial group (Golash-Boza, 2015, 103). Racial inequality is not happening in terms of income levels but also within the labor market. Asians have the highest median earnings than whites, blacks, and Latinx in that respective order. Nonetheless, for as long as one can remember, white workers’ median income has been higher than that of black workers creating an earnings gap with many explanations attached to it.
In terms of gender, a wage gap does exist between men and women in the country’s labor market such that a woman will earn one average of 83 cents hourly for every dollar that a man earns. Furthermore, the differences in earnings by gender and also across the racial and ethnic groups are strikingly evident. The white woman will earn 81 cents for every dollar that a white man earns (Golash-Boza, 2015, 183). Nonetheless, the black woman makes only 65 cents for every dollar made by a white man, while the Latina woman will make only 58 cents (Golash-Boza, 2015, 184). From this analysis, it is clear that when analyzing racial inequality within the labor market while not considering gender, one will not get an accurate picture.
The differences in the income and labor market across racial lines demonstrate that discrimination is still present despite the affirmative actions and establishment of anti-discrimination laws and lawsuits. The author gives fundamental reasons why the discrimination persists, which are reasons I agree to. One of them is that it is very challenging to legislate discrimination away. Some employers are unconsciously discriminating the nonwhites and women (Golash-Boza, 2015, 196). The American society is ingrained with racial ideologies that its people now use to create individual perceptions. Entrenched stereotypes and implicit biases will have a white hiring manager unknowingly consider himself and other white people natural leaders. The nonwhites will take more effort to fit into such positions (Golash-Boza, 2015, 200). He could easily presume that the African American man is irresponsible and the Latinx individual can never be professional. These perceptions will significantly influence the persons hired into their working environment, making it challenging to end labor market discrimination. This will only happen when the racial stereotypes are eliminated.
Another reason for the earnings gap is the structural growth happening in particular industries and the construction happening in other industries resulting from global economic forces beyond the control of the country’s government. A government can choose to provide training programs to instill people with updated skills to fit them into the emerging fields. Notably, if these training programs can ensure that the trainees learn together without racial segregation, it becomes easier to falsify established racial stereotypes and reduce the existing racial disparities. Additionally, the entrenched inequality, patriarchy, and racial divisions within the labor market and small-business market will make it challenging to fight racial inequality. These matters make the United States increasingly unequal since the reasons for their existence are embedded in the country’s history and lifeline.
During this reading, the statistics presented were quite interesting and thought-provoking. It is incredibly intriguing that race and gender still determine the remuneration level a person deserves despite people working similar jobs. Notably, Goulash-Boza makes sense in stating that this has been the outcome of the constructed stereotypes within the society that have ended up harming even individuals’ income levels. Nonetheless, not everything is lost since these racial groups’ empowerment should help increase awareness on why equitable income levels and treatment in the labor market are necessary. From a young age, individuals need to have equal access to educational opportunities. Training and even economic opportunities will see them take part in the economic development of their countries. Racial discrimination hence becomes a thing of the past as the impact of these segregated groups is felt.

Posted in Economics

Use of slurs

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Creation and use of Slurs
Slurs are words formed to attack a specific group of people belonging to a particular category. They mainly attack people based on ethnicity, religion, and gender. People can also use them to signify solidarity and pride (Croom, A. M. (2015). These words are robust, difficult, and persuasive. People might use slurs to hurt and destroy certain people, making them feel humiliated, disempowered, and silenced.
Inversion occurs when a term derives a new meaning by reference to an older existent term. When the targeted groups of these hostile slurs again reclaim to those words for non-derogatory purposes (Díaz Legaspe, J. (2018). Like the appropriation of the word ‘queer’ by the homosexual community. They used this word as a weapon to protect them from facing discrimination and hostility from other people.
Members of a particular group can use the slur to target their group this way; the slur is not invasive in this context. For example, the word ‘nigger’ been appropriated by some African Americans to refer to themselves. (Nunberg, G. (2018). This term’s African American is ‘niga’ a word that they use in a friendly manner or as a badge of honor and pride. It is a way of asserting the humanity of black people in the face of racism.
People determine the meaning of these words, those who use them, and those labeled by them. People form labels for people who belong to certain groups based on race, gender, ethnicity, or nationality. Each word listed followed by its region of usage, the definition, and the reference. These words vary in strength of their effect. Contrary to the law for anyone to harass you, insult you or mistreat you because you belong to a particular category.

References
Croom, A. M. (2015). The semantics of slurs: A refutation of coreferentialism. Ampersand, 2, 30–38.
Díaz Legaspe, J. (2018). Normalizing slurs and out-group slurs: The case of referential restriction. Analytic Philosophy, 59(2), 1–22.
Nunberg, G. (2018). The social life of slurs. In D. Fogal, D. Harris & M. Moss (Eds.), New Work on Speech Acts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Posted in English Literature

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